Thursday, December 26, 2019
Volunteer Management in Response to Natural Disasters: Challenges and Strategies Cameron P. Beilly Florida Atlantic University On August 29, 2005, just after 9:00 am, Hurricane Katrina made landfall just east of New Orleans, Louisiana (Drye, 2010). Winds near the downtown area were upwards of 125 mph, causing intense wind gusts and 40-foot high tidal surges (Drye, 2010). At 11:00 am, a major levee in the city failed, causing walls of water to come pouring into New Orleans proper (Drye, 2010). Throughout the day, other levies failed leading to a vast citywide flood (Drye, 2010). At least 1,836 people lost their lives as a result of Hurricane Katrina. For days, New Orleans was unrecognizable. Eighty percent of the city was leftÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In order to respond to these devastating events and provide aid to those left in the aftermath, humanitarian relief organizations have to quickly prepare and implement large-scale relief activities, with only a short period of time to do so (Lassiter et al., 2015). To do this efficiently, relief organizations look to the volunteer base. However, because of the limited resources available after natural disasters and the unstable, often dangerous conditions in affected areas, volunteer management is a difficult problem (Lassiter et al., 2015). Moreover, often times due to the large-scale nature of these disasters, relief organizations need to train additional, otherwise unqualified volunteers in order to utilize them in the various tasks of their relief effort, further complicating an already complex relief coordination system (Lassiter et al., 2015). This essay first describes the existing framework present in the United States to coordinate volunteers to assist in the aftermath of a natural disaster and the role nongovernmental organizations have in its implementation, then analyzes the key factors and challenges that affect volunteer management during such extraordinary times, before finally presenting additional strategies for managing the issues described throughout the analysis. The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (StaffordShow MoreRelatedThe Total Contribution Of Travel And Tourism Essay1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEach Caribbean country is diverse and has its own natural resources and industries. These industries include bauxite/alumina, agricultural-processing, light manufacturing, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products, telecommunications, etc. Though energy and manufacturing account for large percentages of GDP in individual countries, tourism is by far the most prevalent industry (The World Factbook, n.d.). According to the CIAÃ¢â¬â¢s World Factbook, tourism is top industry in at least 17 of the 26 countriesRead MoreTraditional And Non Traditional Threats Of State Security1650 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessecurity (Jian, 2003). Non-traditional security, on the other hand, refers to security issues of the so-called Ã¢â¬Ëlow politicsÃ¢â¬â¢, including natural disasters, economic security, environmental pollution, popula tion explosion, terrorism, and transferable diseases (AIDS, Ebola, etc). Caballero-Anthony, (2007) simply defines non-traditional security threats as Ã¢â¬Å"challenges to the survival and well-being of peoples and states that arise primarily out of nonmilitary sourcesÃ¢â¬ . While the sphere of traditionalRead MoreEmergency Management. Tehron Cates. North Carolina Central1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. It refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity. Studies suggest that the global climate has been warming and will probably continue to do so. Thus complicated process drives an array of effects, from distinct events like extreme weather to long-termRead MoreEmergency Preparedness : A Natural Part Of Life1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPreparedness Name College Local Emergency Preparedness Disasters are a natural part of life. The history of humankind is littered with major catastrophes that altered the change of history. These catastrophes sometimes have devastating effects and show the weaknesses of the response teams put in place to mitigate them. In recent history, two events have shaped disaster preparedness and response in the country. These disasters are the September 11 terrorist attacks and the hurricane KatrinaRead MoreDisasters are Common Wonder in the Human Civilization875 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesA disaster has become a common wonder in the human civilization. It has been experienced by many even before time was recorded. Though it may appear in different forms, it has been proven to be a great challenge for society cross all statuses, creeds, communities, countries and continents. One of the lasts findings have suggested that the disasters have definitely increased in frequency and intensity. People have become more and more vulnerable to disasters of all types, which would include floodsRead MoreFema s Mission Of Fema1234 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFEMA is to assist state and local authoriÃ ¬ties to respond to man-made and natural disasters that are to enormous for the local and state resources to respond to efficiently. While national security focuses more on civil defense, state and local authorities are more focused on natural disasters such as hurricanes, storms, floods and potential nuclear power accidents. These divergent focuses really presents FEMA with huge challenges since federal security authoritiesÃ¢â¬â¢ main objective is quite differentRead MoreThe Importance of The United Nations Strategy for Disaster Reduction593 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesDisaster risk reduction is a systematic approach in recognizing and reducing the risks of disasters. According to the UNISDR or the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Ã¢â¬Å"The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout the society, to avoid or to limit the adverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development.Ã¢â¬ The capital of the Kingdom of Bahrain, Manama is where theRead MoreHomeland Security1085 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesout to be frequently and generally identified as both a word and as a Federal department. However, a large amount has been learned since 9/11 concerning the array of further challenges we face. Hurricane Katrina strongly illustrates the general impact of weak preparedness and response in the face of severe natural disasters. Widespread international cyber attacks from some of the most sophisticated denial-of-service efforts to persistent and rising attacks on U.S. Government cyber systems reflectRead MoreThe Basic Role Of The Nurse1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesto do during and after disasters. This should lessen panicking, paranoid and uncontrollable people running around. Knowing interventions when a disaster strikes will also lessen the death toll in many areas and will impact less on the affected as well as knowing what to do after disaster, and at least basic first aid, will enable students help the authorities in saving lives. To beginning with it will be good to get the meaning of disaster and the various types of disasters because each of them haveRead MoreNational Strategy For Homeland Security Agencies854 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction The state has the mandate of safeguarding citizens of hit places from suffering the disproportionate impact of natural disasters. The hurricane that hit Jacksonville town in Florida crippled the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s infrastructure. The destroyed power and telephone lines stopped all the communication and transportation systems in the city. The copper wires were left hanging precariously along the charred roads. Looters took the opportunity to steal the expensive copper wires and motorists drove around
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Working Title: Don t Call Her Doll Face or Intanto Non Chiamarla Faccino D Angelo By: D.L. Kittrell (Pen Name) Deborah Dean (legal name) Working Synopsis There is a fine line between upholding the law and Breaking it. Temptation looms at every successful drug delivery, and with every laundered, dirty dollar that the fingers touch. Assistant Prosecuting Attorney, Rowena Kinney knows this better than most anyone. The youngest and only female Prosecutor in Rock Island County. She has tried and convicted members of every organized crime syndicate East of the Mississippi. From small-time Columbian drug smugglers to Gambino Family capo Nicholas Corozzo himself. Hard as nails, legal to the letter, but damned good at what she does, and better case winning record then any man who sat in her seat. Five years in the prosecutor s office, and has won 101 case convictions, and 2 losses, when long-time friend, Chicago detective, Dominic Pizzona went undercover for the FBI to gather intel for a RICO bust involving all 5 infamous La Coka Nostra Families. Months pass and she begins to see changes in him. They have spoke weekly or better their whole liv es, he has gone weeks! His temper has flared toward her more times since he went in then ever in 33 years, uses street slang regularly in their conversations and has skipped his coveted family leave days for 4 consecutive weeks. Now he is missing off the FBI s grid and they all fear he has traded his wedding ring and badge to be a made-manShow MoreRelatedSummary : The I Am Essay800 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestelling. They looked disheveled, and road-weary, like they had traveled for days, which interested her. Visitors to Purgatory were rare, rarer still visitors to the Homestead. But Waverly knew exactly why not all could be welcome. So you, Xavier- Please, call me Dolls, The man interrupted, Waverly figured about as cordially as he could muster. Right, so you, Dolls, are the Xavier Dolls? The wanted one, that Europe wants to hang? Oh I knew there was something about the paper clippingsRead MoreA Summary On The Day Of The Night By William Shakespeare Essay791 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto parse out the story they were telling. They looked like they had traveled for days, which interested her. Visitors to Purgatory were rare, rarer still visitors to the Homestead. But she knew not all could be welcome. Ã Ã Ã Ã So you, Xavier- Ã Ã Ã Ã Please, call me Dolls, The man interrupted, Waverly figured about as cordially as he could muster. Ã Ã Ã Ã Right, so you, Dolls, are the Xavier Dolls? The wanted one, that Europe wants to hang? Oh I knew there was something about the paper clippings aboutRead MoreReview Of Danielle s Pov 1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswindow. How should I know, if you haven t been there neither have I. I don t get told how long it will take us to get there. Ugh why is she such a smartass? Because I know more then you. WHAT THE HELL!!! I yell shocked. Are you- No, your face told me everything. I grumble from her knowledge of me. I start looking out the window, and see this GIANT ass mansion. Whoa! IS that where were staying!?!?! I yell. I hope so, it looks badass!!! Miea says, her childish side coming out. We get outRead MoreChronicles The Author s Journey Through America s Princess Culture With Her Young Daughter, Daisy1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesculture with her young daughter, Daisy. Beginning with Disney princesses, Orenstein comes to examine American Girl dolls, the Ã¢â¬Å"tweenÃ¢â¬ ma rket, Miley Cyrus, social media, beauty pageants, and of course, Barbie, all in the united effort to best understand the decisions she is making for her daughter. potential body issues, poor self-esteem, ramped sexism, and gender essentialist impositions, The Ã¢â¬Å"princess phaseÃ¢â¬ is first up for debate as Orenstein discusses the concept with fellow mothers at her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreUndercover Are Cover : The Purported Occupation Or Purpose Of An Agent2048 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesconsistent with the agent s background and presence in the target area Mason! I haven t seen you in forever. I knew you d come to my birthday party, I just knew it! Jeremy said, when we arrived at my old house, Jeremy opening the door. Of course. I m sorry I haven t been here for you guys I said, hugging him. He hugged back tightly. No harm done. I get it, you had bad times here and you didn t want to relive them. Blake walked out from behind me, carrying our suitcase and smiled atRead MoreWhy I Should Take A Shower1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Of course Finn hadn t gone in my room, twenty dollars had just dissapeared. Damn, I should have kicked his ass. What could Mom do about it anyway? Whatever, it s only twenty bucks. Elli said he d be here to pick me up around five, which means he ll proably show up around five thirty. So I still have about half an hour to kill. I decide that I really should take a shower, mainly just to kill time while avoiding my mom. I take a cold ten minute shower before returning to my room. While I wasRead MoreMy Life - Original Writing1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI heard my mother call my name, and like a pin to a bubble, I popped back into reality. Mother had to go to work in the mornings, and as it was summer holidays, could not look after me. So she asked Ben, a fifteen- year- old that lived only a few doors down, to babysit on the weekday mornings. Danny, she called. Ben is here. In a complete lack of insouciance, I grabbed my matchbox cars, and ran to my mother, excited that Ben had arrived. That morning I didn t hear my father goRead MoreReview Of Dracula By Bram Stoker1188 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the diverse categories of monsters, there are specific types of monsters which are Ã¢â¬Å"cursed by a biteÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âVampires, Zombies and Werewolves (Kaplan 2012: 136). Perhaps vampires are the most interesting of all. Vampires don`t morph into a howling hairy creature at the sight of full-moon and they are not controlled together by a sorcerer; rather they assimilate among us as gentle cannibals. The term vampire has been around for centuries. From Dracula (Stoker 1897) to Twilight (Meyer 2005), vampire cultureRead MorePersonal Narrative : My Old Babysitter1456 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJust in case, he was coming back to shout and slam more doors. After a while, I summoned an inkling of courage to hear any sound. But all I could hear was my mother bleating: I wanted to go down there and comfort the lachrymose woman, to dehydrate her tears with concrete words but, failing on so many occasions, inclined me to stay in my room; guilty and inept. As I laid under the tree the next day, masticating the proverb, every cloud has a silver lining. Surely the apple I m looking at must haveRead MoreShould I Write About Your Freshman Year Of High School?1424 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfrom relatives that you haven t seen in over ten years. I would give the same answer every time, with a huge fake smile plastered on my face. I m going to the ninth grade. Wow! You re getting so big! Was that supposed to be a compliment? I could never tell. August came around the corner, and so did the dreaded back-to-school commercials. The advertisements where all the children were so happy to return to school, wearing whatever they wanted. How Ironic! Don t forget about the shiny book
Monday, December 9, 2019
Ecosystems are dynamic interactions between plants, animals, and microorganisms and their environment working together as a functional unit. If ecosystems do not remain in balance, they will fail. No community can carry more organisms than its food, water, and shelter can accommodate. Humans have affected ecosystems in almost every way imaginable. Every time we walk out in the wilderness or plow new land, we are altering an ecosystem. Every human being has an impact on EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s ecological footprint. Every activity and daily consumption helps alter that footprint which in turn affects almost all ecosystems. The sustainability of EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s ecosystems depends on the lasting goals within institutions, communities, and projects. The government is beginning to make new laws and regulations to protect the environment and raise the importance of our environmental issues. Consumers are now paying more attention to whether or not companies are being environmentally friendly during manufacturing, packaging, producing, etc. We will write a custom essay sample on Ecological Footprint or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is important for corporations to understand how to design and manage green products these days due to the increasing demands from the consumers. Corporations selling these Ã¢â¬Å"eco-friendlyÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ products are often increasing their consumers and demands even though these products are often more expensive. Consumers as a whole can lower their negative impact on the environment by the products they buy and use on a daily basis. Homeowners can purchase energy efficient products such as fluorescent light bulbs and high-efficiency appliances. Most corporations are now ensuring their products are eco and animal-friendly. Meats and produce can be purchased from farms that use Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ technology and non-pesticide feed. Small changes to how a product is made will affect society in the long run. There are many ways to sustain or alter our ecological footprints. Some may take drastic measures to make sure they are living a Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ lifestyle where others may choose a simpler path. Simple ways to reduce pollution and use fewer materials would be to follow the three Ã¢â¬Å"RÃ¢â¬ rule. Recycle, reuse and repair. By simply following these steps, one human can slightly alter their ecological footprint. In order to maintain sustainability in our environment, humans should recognize the limits of the environment. There are a limited number of natural resources that exist on the planet. Some of these resources, such as trees and wildlife, can be renewed as long as there are enough intact in order to regenerate. Natural ecosystems can survive some of the impact as long as they are small enough impacts as the earth can recover. Ecological Footprint free essay sample In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t all that conscious about our ecological footprint, we are aware of it but we donÃ¢â¬â¢t really understand it or believe that us, ourselves, one person being conscious and mindful of how quickly we use resources and produce waste. Our current Ecological footprint is too big for our earth to handle and sustain, but a lot of people are starting to recognise how much we demand from the planet and have started to reduce their ecological footprint. Every time we drive our car uses fossil fuels and puts harmful chemicals into our environment. If everyone attempted to take public transport when they could, to work or school even when buying a new car going for a smaller, more fuel efficient model would be a great start. Another way of reducing fossil fuels is buying your foods locally grown or produced. Fossil fuels and other resources must be used to transport food from distant places. We will write a custom essay sample on Ecological Footprint or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page One that probably everyone already does and has been made very accessible now is reusable grocery and produce bags for shopping. Countless numbers of plastic bags are used at grocery stores every day and most are thrown out after use. Most grocery stores sell their own reusable bags, this reduces our amount of garbage. Avoid using disposable products whenever possible, for example plastic lunch bags that get used and thrown out every day are wasting our resources when a lunch box or container could do the job in a sustainable way. Conserving water and energy is one that everyone stresses and is told about every day, but it is so important, also avoid using air conditioning in your car and home. In the winter, keep your thermostat a few degrees lower than usual and put on a sweater. A few degrees can make a big difference to your footprint, and even save you money on your utilities. Being a conscious consumer, following the reduce, reuse and recycle priority is a great start to helping our earth for the future and after time little things will become habits and daily routines that help lower our ecological footprint.
Monday, December 2, 2019
The Bluest Eye - A Reality of Presence In The Bluest Eye, Toni Morrison shows that anger is healthy and that it is not something to be feared; those who are not able to get angry are the ones who suffer the most. She criticizes Cholly, Polly, Claudia, Soaphead Church, the Mobile Girls, and Pecola because these blacks in her story wrongly place their anger on themselves, their own race, their family, or even God, instead of being angry at those they should have been angry at: whites. Pecola Breedlove suffered the most because she was the result of having others anger dumped on her, and she herself was unable to get angry. When Geraldine yells at her to get out of her house, Pecolas eyes were fixed on the pretty lady and her pretty house. Pecola does not stand up to Maureen Peal when she made fun of her for seeing her dad naked but instead lets Freida and Claudia fight for her. Instead of getting mad at Mr. Yacobowski for looking down on her, she directed her anger toward the dandelions she once thought were beautiful. Howe ver, the anger will not hold(50), and the feelings soon gave way to shame. Pecola was the sad product of having others anger placed on her: All of our waste we dumped on her and she absorbed. And all of our beauty, which was hers first and which she gave to us(205). They felt beautiful next to her ugliness, wholesome next to her uncleanness, her poverty made them generous, her weakness made them strong, and her pain made them happier. When Pecolas father, Cholly Breedlove, was caught as a teenager in a field with Darlene by two white men, never did he once consider directing his hatred toward the hunters(150), rather her directed his hatred towards the girl because hating the white men would consume him. He was powerless against the white men and was unable to protect Darlene from them as well. This caused his to hate her for being in the situation with him and for realizing how powerless her really was. Also, Cholly felt that any misery his daughter suffered was his fault, and look ing in to Pecolas loving eyes angered him because her wondered, What could her do for her - ever? What give her? What say to her?(161) Chollys failures led him to hate those that he failed, most of all his family. Pecolas mother, Polly Breedlove, also wrongly placed her anger on her family. As a result of having a deformed foot, Polly had always had a feeling of unworthiness and separateness. With her own children, sometimes Id catch myself hollering at them and beating them, but I couldnt seem to stop(124). She stopped taking care of her own children and her home and took care of a white family and their home. She found praise, love, and acceptance with the Fisher family, and it is for these reasons that she stayed with them. She had been deprived of such feelings from her family when growing up and in turn deprived her own family of these same feelings. Polly held Cholly as a mode on sin and failure, she bore him like a crown of thorns, and her children like a cross(126). Pecolas friend Claudia is angry at the beauty of whiteness and attempts to dismember white dolls to find where their beauty lies. There is a sarcastic tone in her voice when she spoke of having to be worthy to play with the dolls. Later, when telling the story as a past experience, she describes the adults tone of voice as being filled with years of unfulfilled longing, perhaps a longing to be themselves beautifully white. Claudia herself was happiest when she stood up to Maureen Peal, the beautiful girl from her class. When Claudia and Freida taunted her as she ran down the street, they were happy to get a chance to express anger, and we were still in love with ourselves then(74). Claudias anger towards dolls turns to hated of white girls. Out of a fear for his anger the she could not comprehend, she later tool a refuge in loving whites. She had to
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
A Comparison of the Regents of Otto III essays In the tenth century, the highest position a woman could fill was that of queen, and even that was dependent on a man- a woman could only be a queen if she married a king. However, this does not mean that the queen had no power. She played an important role in advising the king, as can be seen on looking at the diplomata (royal acts) of the time, which often say that a grant had been made at the intercession of an individual: queens were the most frequent intercessors. She was also in charge of the royal household and the education of the heir to the throne, but, most importantly, she could act as a regent if her husband died and the heir was not of age. Her role was often transformed from that of partner or co-adjutant to that of guarantor of dynastic continuity, managing the politics of succession and/or acting as regent for her minor son. In 983 in Ottonian Germany, when Otto II died leaving a three year old son (Otto III) as his heir, this situation occurred. The regency was to be shared between his wife, Theophano, his mother, Adelheid, and his aunt, Mathilda. Only two of these women ruled actively: Theophano, from 983 to her death in 991, and Adelheid, from 991 to Ottos coming of majority in 998. They were constant rivals, perhaps because there could only really be one queen and they saw each other as threats. In 991, Theophano is even supposed to have said if I live another year, Adelheids power in this world will be small enough to fit in the palm of my hand. Ironically, she didnt, dying less than a month later. As they both had periods of sole regency, it is possible to compare their reigns and see who was the most successful, in terms of experience, diplomacy and foreign policy, maintenance of the peace, and relationship with the clergy. Theophano and Adelheid both had experience with ruling before their regencies. They both had knowledge of the workings of the court system from...
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Fatiguer - to Fatigue, Tire - French Verb Conjugations The French verbÃ fatiguer means to fatigue or tire. Find simple conjugations for this regular -er verb in the tables below. Conjugations of Fatiguer Present Future Imperfect Present participle je fatigue fatiguerai fatiguais fatiguant tu fatigues fatigueras fatiguais il fatigue fatiguera fatiguait nous fatiguons fatiguerons fatiguions vous fatiguez fatiguerez fatiguiez ils fatiguent fatigueront fatiguaient Pass compos Auxiliary verb avoir Past participle fatigu Subjunctive Conditional Pass simple Imperfect subjunctive je fatigue fatiguerais fatiguai fatiguasse tu fatigues fatiguerais fatiguas fatiguasses il fatigue fatiguerait fatigua fatigut nous fatiguions fatiguerions fatigumes fatiguassions vous fatiguiez fatigueriez fatigutes fatiguassiez ils fatiguent fatigueraient fatigurent fatiguassent Imperative tu fatigue nous fatiguons vous fatiguez Verb conjugation patternFatiguerÃ is aÃ regular -ER verb
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Impact of Globalization Wal-Mart - Essay Example It is feasible that the increase of the internet and the process that starts with liberalization will continue such movement in trade in the 21st century or otherwise. Globalization can be define as Ã¢â¬Å"the act of globalizingÃ¢â¬Å"; from the word mention Ã¢â¬Å"globalÃ¢â¬Å" means Ã¢â¬Å"involving the whole world pertaining to/ Ã¢â¬Å", Ã¢â¬Å"wider worldÃ¢â¬Å"; Ã¢â¬Å"universalÃ¢â¬Å". Globalization is present worldwide drive towards a globalized economic system governs by supranational organizational trade and banking institutions which are not accountable to democratic process or national governmentÃ¢â¬Å". Ã¢â¬Å"Globalization is the historical stage of expansion of market capitalism, in similitude to the experience in the 19th century with an industrial revolution. It is a central transformation in societies reason of the recent technological revolution which has led to a recombination of the social and economic forces on a fresh territorial dimensionÃ¢â¬Å". Ã¢â¬Å"Globalization says it as the growing integration of societies and economies around the world...Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"The definition of UBPD relies on the contextual analysis but generally means to an accelerating interlinking across national boundaries affecting the so many aspects of life; socialization, cultural economic along with political. In this context of study, the focus is only on economic aspects, with emphasis on the role of I-C-T. [information and communications technologies]. Therefore, globalization narrowly means growing economic interdependence of worldwide countries. This covers increases in the international division of labor effected by swelling international flows of F-B-I [foreign-based investment], along with an increasing volume and variety of cross border transactions in products and services, international migration, international capital flows and the rapid or widespread diffusion of technology. It does not Imply that social, cultural and other types of globalization are unimportant, only that they are less applicable to discussions of economic development and sec urityÃ¢â¬Å" World Health Organization Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Globalization, or the boosting interconnectedness and interdependence of countries or people, is generally thought to include two interrelated elements:Ã the freeing of borders to increasing fast flow of finance, people, goods, services, and ideas beyond international borders; and the alterations in institutional and policy regimes at the national and international levels that promote or facilitate such flows.Ã¢â¬ Globalization As Define by Few Authors: As Douglas Kellner notes, Ã¢â¬Å"the term globalization is a theoretical construct that in it contested and open for different meanings and inflections.Ã¢â¬ Globalization, in eyes of some pundits or scholars and policy
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Virtue Ethics and Adultery - Essay Example Ztohoven is a radical stylist who inserted an image of a mushroom cloud into a weather report on an ordinary morning. This act resulted into multiple condemnations, similar to those faced by Orson Welles in the H.G WellÃ¢â¬â¢s alien invasion radio play of 1938. ZtohovenÃ¢â¬â¢s video caused little panic though; neither did it find its classification as a classic despite making way to You tube. In addition to that, Ztohoven received an award from the National Gallery in Prague for the prank. Despite these accolades, the group was tried before a Czech court for claims of propagation of false information and scaremongering (LaFollette, 2013). By looking at the meteorological manipulation by this group, the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s question of the responsibility that an artwork commands arises. Certain works are designed to be provocative, thus it is necessary to determine the point at which shock overweighs the intended purpose of an artwork. In addition to that, the relevance of the responsibility should consider the global environment that is full of hip-hop songs (Charry, 2012), movies and repulsive reality shows all which depict the nature of the current world. Chris Byrden, in the year 1970, publicly shot himself in the arm while Vito Acconci openly masturbated under a gallery floor. All this happened as his audience walked above him. The growth of installation and performance of the video art have pushed the levels of sexual content to a rather transgressive territory. This is even more surprising as all through the transformation, the human body has acted as the medium for expressing the changes in the artwork displayed to the public. Furthermore, the author highlights an incident in which Andrea Fraser tapes herself receiving $20,000 for the exchange of sex (Ley, 2012). As if not enough, Karen Finley strips naked before coating herself with chocolate while Santiago Sierra tattoos prostitutes. The question whether the artists are aware of
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Paraphrased Article Essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Internet is becoming the town square for the global village of tomorrow. Ã¢â¬ Bill Gates, Founder of the giant Microsoft Corporations Ltd. Internet has arguably become one of the most indispensible parts of the lives of millions of people around the globe. There are not many laws which regulate the usage of internet for collecting information about the political processes, persona or policies. A common man can readily get involved in the political process by accessing the internet, reading various articles or news on National Politics and give his/her view on the same. The low cost model of the internet is an effective tool to involve millions of global citizens and make them active members in the political systems. The article Ã¢â¬ËThe Citizen Participation Gap: Can the Internet Help? Ã¢â¬â¢ points out that the Internet is a medium which cuts across barriers and various sections of the society. It leverages from the varied social, political, and educational backgrounds of the users and thus adds multiple dimensions to the process of political participation. It is important to note that the usage of internet and age of the user are inversely proportional. As people grow old their internet usage goes down. For example,, most of the Internet users fall in the age group of 18-29 years. These users are active members of various social networking sites and many of them are online to investigate their political participation opportunities. Thus theoretically it could be claimed that it is the widespread reach and use of the Internet which has made it possible for young people ,to become the largest captive audiences to be involved in the process of political participation. One of the recent examples of this could be seen in the Indian politics wherein the ex foreign minister Mr. Shashi Tharoor garnered massive support from his followers on the social networking site twitter while he was forced to resign after being caught in a controversy with the Indian Premier League. Various online campaigns supporting Shashi Tharoor came up and people expressed their views in the entire process. We are here to say, we support you Shashi Tharoor. Dont let them pull you down for you will take our hopes and dreams for a better and brighter India with you. You bring to India everything we had ever hoped would change, and we stand by you, said a viewer on the Support Shashi Tharoor website. In the past decade the internet usage among people has gone up. More and more people use the Internet,, and it is being regarded as one of the most powerful mediums giving direct access to a citizen in the political process. Muir believes that the Internet participation of people is the cause of powerful influence. People comment on national or international news, spread their views and comments in the form of blogs and to some extent are instrumental in deciding the course of political development of a news. Social networking sites like twitter helps people to be directly in touch with their favorite political leaders and give them their views and opinions. This proposal not only increased the participation of citizens but also improved the quality of the projects. Exploring the past and present trends in the use of internet, Coglianese concludes that the Internet will remain a powerful source of information and participation in the future. In conclusion it could be said that in spite of many view points against the use of the internet, the positive influence of Internet on the participation of citizens cannot be denied. The internet provides a common man a platform and gives them a chance to express their opinion and viewpoints, create their profiles, have a group of online supporters and influence changes in the political scenario. The amount of opportunities that the internet provides and individual to make friends and increase their social networks is massive. No doubt, there are a number of impediments to the efficient application of an Internet based government; nevertheless, these obstructions can be dealt with in the years to come.. By Uma Subramanian
Thursday, November 14, 2019
In the United States alone, there are approximately 18.8 million people, who are diagnosed with a form of diabetes. Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to produce any or enough insulin causes elevated levels of glucose in the blood. There are three forms of diabetes; Type 1 (Juvenile), Type 2, and Gestational Diabetes. Diabetes is a serious health condition that can go long undiagnosed and lead to severe symptoms such as amputation of limbs and possible death if left untreated. On record for the year 2007, there were 71,382 deaths from which diabetes was the primary underlying cause of death, with an additional 160,022 deaths, where diabetes was a significant contributing factor ("American Diabetes Association," 2014). Factors that contribute to having diabetes depend on which form you have, can result from lifestyle choices (diet) or genetics. Early detection and treatment can significantly reduce the complications of diabetes. The most common sympto ms include frequent urination, extreme thirst, extreme hunger, extreme fatigue, blurred vision, slow healing of cuts/bruises, weight loss (specifically Type 1), and tingling/pain/numbness in hands/feet. When someone has extremely high blood glucose the body does on have enough insulin or it is not using it properly and this called hyperglycemia. If this is untreated this will cause a condition called ketoacidosis (a diabetic coma). If someone has extremely low blood glucose levels this is called hypoglycemia. Ã¢â¬Å"Hypoglycemia can happen suddenly. It is usually mild and can be treated quickly and easily by eating or drinking a small amount of glucose-rich food. If left untreated, hypoglycemia can get worse and cause confusion, clumsiness, or fainting. Severe hypo... ...uropathy (nerve damage), kidney disease, high blood pressure, foot complications and many more complications. Organizations such as the American Diabetes Association have been providing critical funding for diabetes research since its inception in 1994 which goes towards Association-funded research projects for diabetes to better understand this condition and attempt to find a cure. I chose this topic for my research paper because I had an interest in diabetes because I was recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes approximately one year ago. I am required to inject insulin every day and before every meal. This is most definitely a big change in my life considering I had an excellent diet and I exercise on a regular basis. I have suffered from some of the more severe symptoms of diabetes such as severe neuropathy in my hands, feet and legs as well as vision problems.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The Catcher in the Rye is set around the 1950s and is narrated by a young man named Holden Caulfield. Holden is not specific about his location while heÃ¢â¬â¢s telling the story, but he makes it clear that he is undergoing treatment in a mental hospital or sanatorium. The events he narrates take place in the few days between the end of the fall school term and Christmas, when Holden is sixteen years old. Alienation as a Form of Self-Protection: Throughout the novel, Holden seems to be excluded from and victimized by the world around him. He continually attempts to find his way in a world in which he feels he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t belong. As the novel progresses, we begin to perceive that HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s alienation is his way of protecting himself. He uses his isolation as proof that he is better than everyone else around him and therefore above interacting with them. The truth is that interactions with other people usually confuse and overwhelm him, and his cynical sense of superiority serves as a type of self-protection. HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s alienation is the cause of most of his pain. He never addresses his own emotions directly, nor does he attempt to discover the source of his troubles. He desperately needs human contact and love, but his protective wall of bitterness prevents him from looking for such interaction. Alienation is both the source of HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s strength and the source of his problems. Belonging to the School Community/ a group The school communityÃ¢â¬â¢s collective allegiance to the football team enables them to belong to each other: Ã¢â¬Å"Anyway it was the Saturday of the football game with Saxon HallÃ¢â¬ ¦It was the last game of the year and you were supposed to commit suicide or something if old Pencey didnÃ¢â¬â¢t winÃ¢â¬ . Pg. 2 (Pencey Prep is a school the main character, Holden went to) The use of the verb, Ã¢â¬ËsupposedÃ¢â¬â¢, demonstrates the expectations of the community. The high modality of the verb, Ã¢â¬ËsuicideÃ¢â¬â¢ highlights the strength of their connection HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s sarcastic tone mocks their sense of belonging, thus segregating him. Ã¢â¬Å"There was about three inches of snow on the ground (at Pencey Prep after dinner one night) and coming down like a madman. It looked pretty as hell, and we all started throwing snowballs and horsing around all over the place. It was very childish, but everybody was really enjoying themselves.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 31 This anecdote demonstrates a sense of belonging to peers in the school community. Plural pronoun, Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢ and the adjective, Ã¢â¬ËallÃ¢â¬â¢ demonstrates the all-encompassing sense of belonging across the group. Ã¢â¬Å"It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t allowed for students to borrow faculty guyÃ¢â¬â¢s cars but all the athletic bastards stuck together. In every school IÃ¢â¬â¢ve gone to, all the athletic bastards stick togetherÃ¢â¬ . Pg. 37 The conjunction, Ã¢â¬ËbutÃ¢â¬â¢ Repitition of Ã¢â¬Ëathletic bastardsÃ¢â¬â¢ The adjective and negative Ã¢â¬ËbastardsÃ¢â¬â¢ The repetition of the adverb, togetherÃ¢â¬â¢ Demonstrates the way in which individuals are connected through a common interest. Whilst, the negative connotations of, Ã¢â¬ËbastardÃ¢â¬â¢, elucidate HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s negative view on this group of people and suggests that he does not belong to this group. HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s Absence of Belonging Ã¢â¬Å"Practically the whole school except me was there.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 2 Adjective, Ã¢â¬ËwholeÃ¢â¬â¢, in relation to the noun, Ã¢â¬ËschoolÃ¢â¬â¢, juxtaposes against the personal pronoun through the use of the conjunction, Ã¢â¬ËexceptÃ¢â¬â¢. This highlights HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s isolation from the community. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d just got back from New York with the fencing teamÃ¢â¬ ¦I left all the foils and equipment and stuff on the goddam subwayÃ¢â¬ ¦The whole team ostracized me the whole way back on the train.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 3 Verb, Ã¢â¬ËostracizedÃ¢â¬â¢, demonstrates HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s exclusion and the use of the adjective, Ã¢â¬ËwholeÃ¢â¬â¢, exemplifies the full extent of his exclusion. Ã¢â¬Å"I felt so lonesome, all of a sudden. I almost wished I was deadÃ¢â¬ ¦.Boy, did I feel rotten. I felt so damn lonesome.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 42 Repetition of the abstract noun, Ã¢â¬ËlonesomeÃ¢â¬â¢ highlights HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of isolation. The verb, Ã¢â¬ËwishedÃ¢â¬â¢ and adjective, Ã¢â¬ËdeadÃ¢â¬â¢ suggest the negative implications of a bereft sense of belonging. Ã¢â¬Å"It was even depressing out in the street. You couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t even hear any cars any more. I got feeling so lonesome and rotten, I even felt like waking Ackley up.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 44 The adjectives, Ã¢â¬ËdepressingÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËlonesomeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËrottenÃ¢â¬â¢ convey his disconnection from his environment and his defiled sense of belonging. Everybody was asleep or out or home for the week end, and it was very, very quiet and depressing in the corridor.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 45 The pronoun, Ã¢â¬ËeverybodyÃ¢â¬â¢ is all-inclusive and the repetition of the adverb, Ã¢â¬ËveryÃ¢â¬â¢ emphasizes the loneliness and sense of solitude Holden is feeling, implied by the adjective, Ã¢â¬ËdepressingÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬Å"In fact, nobody was around my age. They were mostly old, show-offy-looking guys with their dates.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 62 The combination of the pronoun, Ã¢â¬ËnobodyÃ¢â¬â¢, the personal pronoun, Ã¢â¬ËmyÃ¢â¬â¢ and the abstract noun, Ã¢â¬ËageÃ¢â¬â¢ convey HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s absence of belonging in that he is unable to find commonalities or connect with the people around him. Lack of Belonging- the distaste for his environment (Mostly Place) Ã¢â¬Å"It was a horrible school (Pencey Prep), no matter how you looked at itÃ¢â¬ . Pg. 2 Adjective, Ã¢â¬ËhorribleÃ¢â¬â¢, illustrates HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s aversion to his surroundings. Ã¢â¬Å"They kicked me out (of school)Ã¢â¬ ¦I was flunking four subjects and not applying myself and all. They gave me frequent warnings to start applying myselfÃ¢â¬ ¦.but I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do it. So I got the axeÃ¢â¬ Pg. 3 Adjective, Ã¢â¬ËfrequentÃ¢â¬â¢ and noun, Ã¢â¬ËwarningsÃ¢â¬â¢, demonstrate HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness of the situation. The conjunction, Ã¢â¬ËbutÃ¢â¬â¢ and the negative, Ã¢â¬ËdidnÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬â¢ demonstrate his lack of action. Thus, illustrating HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the lack of belonging that he is experiencing. Ã¢â¬Å"Pencey was full of crooksÃ¢â¬ . Pg. 3 The negative connotations of the noun, Ã¢â¬ËcrooksÃ¢â¬â¢, to represent the students at Pencey highlight HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s distaste for those around him and the adjective, Ã¢â¬ËfullÃ¢â¬â¢, highlights the abundance of these people, he is unable to connect with. Ã¢â¬Å"One of the biggest reasons I left Elkon Hills was because I was surrounded by phoniesÃ¢â¬ . Pg. 12 The use of the noun, Ã¢â¬ËphoniesÃ¢â¬â¢, to describe the students at his previous school and the use of the adjective, Ã¢â¬ËsurroundedÃ¢â¬â¢, implies that he feels trapped in a world in which he does not belong and with people whom he does not connect with. Ã¢â¬Å"I hated that goddam Elkon HillsÃ¢â¬ , Pg. 12 The verb, Ã¢â¬ËhatedÃ¢â¬â¢ and negative connotations of the adjective, Ã¢â¬ËgoddamÃ¢â¬â¢, illustrate HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s repugnance towards his environment. Ã¢â¬Å"For one thing the room was too damn hot. It made you sleepy. At Pencey, you either froze to death or died of the heatÃ¢â¬ . Pg. 19 The juxtaposition of Ã¢â¬Ëfroze to deathÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëdied of the heatÃ¢â¬â¢, demonstrates HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s discomfort and lack of connection and contentness in the world around him. The incorporation of the noun, Ã¢â¬ËdeathÃ¢â¬â¢ and verb, Ã¢â¬ËdiedÃ¢â¬â¢, conveys the severity of his distaste for his environment. HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s Search for a Sense of Belonging Ã¢â¬Å"What really knocks me out is a book that, when youÃ¢â¬â¢re all done reading it, you wish the author that wrote it was a terrific friend of yours and you could call him up on the phone whenever you felt like itÃ¢â¬ . Pg. 16 The verb, Ã¢â¬ËwishÃ¢â¬â¢, used with the noun, Ã¢â¬ËfriendÃ¢â¬â¢, suggests HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s yearning to establish a connection with someone. Ã¢â¬Å"But finally after I was riding for a while the cab driver and I sort of struck up a conversation. Ã¢â¬Å" Pg. 74Ã¢â¬Å" Would you care to stop off and have a drink with me somewhere?Ã¢â¬ I said. Pg. 75 The noun, Ã¢â¬ËconversationÃ¢â¬â¢ and the question within the direct speech imply HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s search to belong through aiming to establish connections with people. Ã¢â¬Å"I damn near got my coat back and went back to the hotel, but it was too early and I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel much like being alone.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 77 The noun, Ã¢â¬ËbeingÃ¢â¬â¢ and adjective, Ã¢â¬ËaloneÃ¢â¬â¢ demonstrate HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s wish to fulfill his sense of belonging. Ã¢â¬Å"What I did do though, was ask the waiter to ask old Ernie if heÃ¢â¬â¢d care to join me for a drink.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 78 Throughout the novel, HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s loneliness and absence of a sense of belonging is conveyed however so are his attempts to establish connections with people. He asks cab drivers and waiters etc. if they would care to have a drink with him. This is illustrated through the noun, Ã¢â¬ËwaiterÃ¢â¬â¢, the verb, Ã¢â¬ËjoinÃ¢â¬â¢ and the personal pronoun, Ã¢â¬ËmeÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Boy, I felt miserable. I felt so depressed, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine. What I did, I started talking, sort of out loud, to Allie. I do that sometimes when I get very depressed.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 89 (search for belonging through family) The repetition of the adjective, Ã¢â¬ËdepressedÃ¢â¬â¢ highlight the issues within HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional and mental well-being. The verb, Ã¢â¬ËtalkingÃ¢â¬â¢ and noun, Ã¢â¬ËAllieÃ¢â¬â¢ conveys HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s search for belonging as he is aiming to communicate with his deceased brother Allie, whom he shared a connection with. Belonging To Oneself Ã¢â¬Å"They gave me this crumby room, with nothing to look out of the window at except the other side of the hotel. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care much. I was too depressed to care whether I had a good view or not.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 54 The adjective, Ã¢â¬ËcrumbyÃ¢â¬â¢ conveys HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s affliction to his environment and absence of belonging to place. HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to belong to himself is also highlighted through the adjective, Ã¢â¬ËtooÃ¢â¬â¢ and abstract noun, Ã¢â¬ËdepressedÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢I canÃ¢â¬â¢t sit in a corny place like this cold sober. Cantcha stick a little rum in it or something? (Holden asks the waiter).Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ . Pg. 62 HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s reliance on alcohol is evident here as he is unable to connect with people or his environment and does not have a well-established and stable sense of belonging to himself. This is achieved through the pronoun, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ , adjective, Ã¢â¬ËcornyÃ¢â¬â¢ and abstract noun, Ã¢â¬ËsoberÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬Å"In the first place it was one of those places that are very terrible to be in unless you have somebody good to dance with or unless the waiter lets you buy real drinks instead of just Cokes. There isnÃ¢â¬â¢t any night club in the world you can sit for a long time unless you can buy some liquor and get drunk.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 68 HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s absence of sense of self is exhibited here, which has an impact on his ability to find belonging through place, through his reliance on alcohol. This is demonstrated through the adjective, Ã¢â¬ËterribleÃ¢â¬â¢, the verb, Ã¢â¬ËdanceÃ¢â¬â¢ and noun, Ã¢â¬ËdrinksÃ¢â¬â¢. The adjective, Ã¢â¬ËdrunkÃ¢â¬â¢. Belonging to Family Ã¢â¬Å"I certainly wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have minded shooting the crap with old Phoebe (HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s younger sister) for a while. You should see her. You never saw a little kid so pretty and so smart in your whole life. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s really smartÃ¢â¬ ¦As a matter of fact, IÃ¢â¬â¢m the only dumb one in the family.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 60 The use of the colloquial phrase, Ã¢â¬Ëshooting the crapÃ¢â¬â¢, demonstrates HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to connect with his sister. The repetition of, Ã¢â¬ËsoÃ¢â¬â¢ used in conjunction with the adjectives, Ã¢â¬ËprettyÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËsmartÃ¢â¬â¢, demonstrate HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s adoration of his sister. The adjective, Ã¢â¬ËdumbÃ¢â¬â¢ used by Holden to describe himself juxtaposes against those used to describe his sister, while the adverb, Ã¢â¬ËonlyÃ¢â¬â¢ creates a divide between Holden and his family, thus implying his absence of belonging. Ã¢â¬Å"When she (Phoebe) was a very tiny little kid, I and Allie used to take her to the park with us, especially on Sundays. Allie had this sailboat he used to like fool around with on Sundays and we used to take old Phoebe with us. SheÃ¢â¬â¢d wear white gloves and walk right between us, like a lady and allÃ¢â¬ . Pg. 61 The anecdote evokes HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of connection with members of his family, his brother Allie and sister Phoebe. Belonging through Friendship Ã¢â¬Å"I know old Jane like a book-I still couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get her off my brain. I knew her like a book. I really did. I mean, besides checkers, she was quite fond of all athletic sports, and after I got to know her, the whole summer long we played tennis together almost every morning and golf almost every afternoon.Ã¢â¬ Pg. 69 The repetition of the simile, Ã¢â¬Ëlike a bookÃ¢â¬â¢, conveys the connection through friendship that Holden has with Jane. The adverb, Ã¢â¬ËtogetherÃ¢â¬â¢ and repetition of the adjective, Ã¢â¬ËeveryÃ¢â¬â¢, further emphasize this connection and achievement of a sense of belonging through friendship.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction Reliable accounting and financial reporting issued by auditors help organisations in allocating resources from the society in an efficient manner. Although the primary goal of an organisation is profit making and to allocate limited capital resources to the production of goods and services for which societyÃ¢â¬â¢s demand is great, a highly complex phenomenon which is corruption poses a threat to those goals and services. However, most organisations spend huge sums of money adopting strategies to fight corruption (Whittington et al., 2004). 2.2 History of Auditing The word Ã¢â¬Å"AuditÃ¢â¬ originated from the Latin word Ã¢â¬ËauditusÃ¢â¬â¢ which means, Ã¢â¬Ëa hearingÃ¢â¬â¢. In the earlier days, whenever there was suspected corruption in a business organization, the owner of the business would appoint a person to check the accounts and require hearing the explanations given by the person responsible for keeping the accounts and funds. In those days, the audit was done to find out whether the payments and receipts were properly accounted or not accounted for (http://www.eHow.com). During the advent of the Industrial Revolution, from 1750 to 1850, auditing evolved into a field of fraud detection and financial accountability. Until then, Auditing existed primarily as a method to maintain governmental accountancy and record-keeping. The incidence of the revolution resulted in businesses expanding thereby resulting in increased job positions between owners to customers. Resultantly, management was hired to operate businesses in the ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ absences, and owners found an increasing need to monitor their financial activities both for accuracy and fraud prevention. (http://www.eHow.com). In the early 20th century, the reporting practice of auditors, which involved submitting reports of their duties and findings, was standardized as the Ã¢â¬Å"Independent AuditorÃ¢â¬â¢s Report.Ã¢â¬ The increase in demand for auditors led to the development of the testing process for accuracy and fraud prevention. Auditors developed a way to strategically selecting key cases as representative of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. This was an affordable alternative to examining every case in detail, required less time and a good tool for reducing fraud (http://www.eHow.com). 2.3 Overview of Auditing Ã¢â¬Å"Auditing is a systematic examination of the books and records of a business or the organization in order to ascertain or verify and to report upon the facts regarding the financial operation and the result thereofÃ¢â¬ (Montgomery, 2010,p.6). Again, Loughran (2010, p.5), defines auditing as, the process of investigating information that is prepared by someone else to determine whether the information is fairly stated. On the other hand, Arens et al. (2006, p.7), defines auditing as the accumulation of evidence about information to determine and report on the degree of correspondence between the information and established criteria. Ã¢â¬Å"Auditing is a systematic process of objectively obtaining and evaluating evidence regarding assertions about economic actions and events to ascertain the degree of correspondence between the assertions and established criteria and communicating the results to interested usersÃ¢â¬ (Robertson et al., 2002,p.7).According to Knechel (2001,p.4 2), Ã¢â¬Å"auditing is the process of providing assurance about the reliability of the information contained in the financial statements prepared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.Ã¢â¬ 2.4 Types of Audit There are various ways in which the work performed by the auditor has been classified or categorized. Each classification or type of audit is unique in that, each type of audit has its own perspective, objective and business organisation. Irrespective of the type of audit being conducted, the basic processes, guidelines and standards are basically the same. However, Hall (2005) classifies the types of audits that auditors perform into four; 2.4.1 Internal Audit The Institute of Internal Auditors defines internal audit as an independent function established within an organisation to examine and evaluate the audit activities as a service to the organisation. Internal audits are conducted by auditors who work for the organization (Ibid). 2.4.2 Information Technology Audit This is associated with auditors who use technical skills and knowledge toÃ audit through the computer system, or provide audit services where processes or data, or both, are embedded in technologies. Hence, IT audit involves the auditing of information technology, computer system and the like. IT audit allows auditors to audit through the database and computer (Ibid). 2.4.3 Fraud Audit This is the newest area of auditing, arising out of both rampant employee theft of assets and major financial frauds. In such audits, materiality is irrelevant, and the primary goal is an investigation of anomalies not to give assurance. Hence, fraud audit aims at gathering evidence of fraud and where sufficient evidence exist, fraud audit leads to conviction (Ibid). 2.4.4 Financial Audit Also referred to as external audits, this involves auditors who work independent of the organisation being audited. The audit objective is to give an opinion on the financial statements (Ibid). 2.5 Types of Auditors There are a number of different types of auditors; however, they can be classified under four headings: external auditors, internal auditors, government auditors, and forensic auditors. One important requirement of each type of auditor is independence, in some manner, from the entity being audited (Robertson et al., 2002). 2.5.1 External Auditors External Auditors are often referred to as independent auditors or certified public accountants (CPAs). Such auditors are called Ã¢â¬Å"externalÃ¢â¬ because they are not employed by the entity being audited. However, external auditors audit financial statements for publicly traded and private companies, partnerships, municipalities, individuals, and other type of entities. An external auditor may practice as a sole proprietor or as a member of a CPA firm (Robertson et al., 2002). On the other hand, Boynton et al. (2001), describes external auditors as independent having education, training, and thus by virtue of their experience, external auditors are qualified to perform each of the types of activities being the operational audit activity, the audit compliance, and the financial statements audit activity. Operational audit activity has to do with obtaining and evaluating evidenceÃ about the efficiency and effectiveness of an entityÃ¢â¬â¢s operating activities in relation to specified objectives. Furthermore, compliance audit activity has to do with obtaining and evaluating evidence to determine whether certain financial or operating activities of an entity conform to specified rules, or regulations (Boynton et al., 2001).Finally, the financial statements audit activity has to do with obtaining and evaluating evidence about an entityÃ¢â¬â¢s financial statements for the purpose of expressing an opinion on whether the financial statements are presented fairly in conformity with established criteria-usually Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (Boynton et al.,2001). 2.5.2 Internal Auditors Internal auditors are auditors employed by individual companies, partnerships, government agencies, individuals, and other entities (Messier et al., 2008). Additionally, internal auditors are also employed extensively by government and nonprofit organisations with the principal goal of investigating and appraising the activities with which the various organisational units of the company are carrying out their assigned functions (Whittington et al., 2004). However, in addition to the provision of consulting services to the organisation, internal auditors pay much attention to the study of internal control. Again, internal auditors are primarily involved with compliance and operational audit activities. With the operational audit activity having to do with the obtaining and evaluating evidence about the efficiency and effectiveness of an entityÃ¢â¬â¢s operating activities in relation to specified objectives (Boynton et al., 2001).Furthermore, the compliance audit activity having to d o with the obtaining and evaluating evidence to determine whether certain financial or operating activities of an entity conform to specified conditions, rules, or regulations (Boynton et al., 2001). 2.5.3 Government Auditors Government auditors are employed by federal, state, and local agencies. They generally can be considered a subset of the broader category of internal auditors. At the federal level, two agencies use auditors extensively: the Government Accountability Office and the Internal Revenue Service. The Internal Revenue Agents have their responsibility of enforcing tax laws as defined by congress of parliament and interoperated by the courts. However,Ã the government auditors engage in a wide range of audit activities, including financial statements audit activity, the compliance audit activity and the operational audit activity (Messier et al., 2008). Financial statements audit activity has to do with the obtaining and evaluating evidence about an entityÃ¢â¬â¢s financial statements for the purpose of expressing an opinion on whether they are presented fairly in conformity with established criteria-usually Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. The compliance audit activity having to d o with the obtaining and evaluating evidence to determine whether certain financial or operating activities of an entity conform to specified conditions, rules, or regulations. Finally, the operational audit activity having to do with the obtaining and evaluating evidence about the efficiency and effectiveness of an entityÃ¢â¬â¢s operating activities in relation to specified objectives (Boynton et al., 2001). 2.5.4 Forensic Auditors Forensic auditors are employed by corporations, government agencies, public accounting firms, and consulting and investigative services firms. They are trained in detecting, investigating, and deterring fraud and corruption (Boynton et al., 2001). 2.6 Roles of the Auditor The role of both the internal and external auditor in the business and economic life of the society is very important. Modern business enterprises are quite large and mostly in corporate form wherein shareholders do not necessarily engage in the running of the management team to run the business on behalf of the shareholders. As a result, management is required to prepare and submit accounts of their stewardship to reflect the true financial position of the entityÃ¢â¬â¢s activities (Yiadom, 2009). Ã ¬The Role of the Auditor in the Internal Control Internal control is broadly defined as a process, executed by an entityÃ¢â¬â¢s board of directors, management, and other personnel, designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of objectives in the following internal control categories: 1.Effectiveness and efficiency of operations. 2.Reliability of financial reporting. 3.Compliance with laws and regulations. Management is responsible for internal control. Managers establish policies and processes to help the organization achieve specific objectives in each of these categories. Auditors perform audits to evaluate whether the policies and processes are designed and operating effectively and provide recommendations for improvement (Messier et al., 2008). Ã ¬The Role of the Auditor in Corporate Governance Corporate governance is a combination of processes and organizational structures implemented by the Board of Directors to inform, direct, manage, and monitor the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s resources, strategies and policies towards the achievement of the organizations objectives. The internal auditor is often considered one of the Ã¢â¬Å"four pillarsÃ¢â¬ of corporate governance, the other pillars being the Board of Directors, management, and the external auditor(Business web (online) 2006 http://www.allbusiness.com). A primary focus area of internal auditing as it relates to corporate governance is helping the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors (or equivalent) perform its responsibilities effectively. This may include reporting critical internal control problems, informing the Committee privately on the capabilities of key managers, suggesting questions or topics for the Audit CommitteeÃ¢â¬â¢s meeting agendas, and coordinating with the external auditor(Business web (online) 2006 http://www.allbusiness.com). Ã ¬Role of the Auditor in Risk Management Auditing professional standards require the function of the auditor to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s risk management processes. Risk management relates to how an organization sets objectives, then identifies, analyzes, and responds to those risks that could potentially impact its ability to realize its objectives. Management performs risk assessment activities as part of the ordinary course of business in each of these categories. Examples include: strategic planning, marketing planning, capital planning, budgeting, hedging, incentive payout structure, and credit/lending practices. Sarbanes-Oxley regulations alsoÃ require extensive risk assessment of financial reporting processes (Business web (online) 2006 http://www.allbusiness.com). Corporate legal counsel often prepares comprehensive assessments of the current and potential litigation a company faces. Internal auditors may evaluate each of these activities, or focus on the processes used by management to report and monitor the risks identified. For example, internal auditors can advise management regarding the reporting of forward-looking operating measures to the Board, to help identify emerging risks (Business web (online) 2006 http://www.allbusiness.com). In larger organizations, major strategic initiatives are implemented to achieve objectives and drive changes. As a member of senior management, the Chief Audit Executive may participate in status updates on these major initiatives. This places the Chief Audit Executive in the position to report on many of the major risks the organization faces to the Audit Committee, or ensure managementÃ¢â¬â¢s reporting is effective for that purpose (Business web (online) 2006 http://www.allbusiness.com). 2.7 Overview of Corruption Although there is no universal or comprehensive definition as to what constitutes corrupt behaviour, most definitions share a common emphasis upon the abuse of public power or position for personal advantage (Boadi, 2002 vol.4 no.2).The Oxford Unabridged Dictionary defines corruption as Ã¢â¬Å"perversion or destruction of integrity in the discharge of public duties by bribery or favour.Ã¢â¬ WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Collegiate Dictionary defines it as Ã¢â¬Å"inducement to wrong by improper or unlawful means (as bribery).Ã¢â¬ A succinct definition of corruption used by the World Bank is Ã¢â¬Å"the abuse of public office for private gain.Ã¢â¬ Corruption is a complex multi-faceted social phenomenon with innumerable manifestations. It takes place as an outcome of deficiencies in the existing public administration apparatuses and systems as well as cultural, economic, political and social factors. Differences of opinion still exist as to the meaning of the term corruption. This is primarily because individuals look at corruption from their own vantage points influenced by surrounding environment (Khan, 2004). Coherently, Swain& Dininio (2000), explains corruption as the abuse of public office for private gain. It encompasses unilateral abuses by government officials such as embezzlement and nepotism, as well as abuses linking public and privateÃ actors such as bribery extortion, influence peddling, and fraud. 2.8 Corruptive Issues in an Organisation Corruptive issues arise in an organization where both employers and employees embark on any act classified as corruption (Balkaran, 2000). 2.8.1 Causes of CorruptionÃ Khan (2004), defines corruption as a phenomenon that takes place due to the presence of a number of factors. An understanding of such factors requires, among other things, a kind of general framework for a clearer understanding of the causes of corruption, especially from a broader perspective. However, Goudie & Strange (2000), explained that the genesis of corruption can be looked at from three levels being the international, the national and the individual institutional level. Competitiveness of international markets provides multinational companies of various sizes with an incentive to offer bribes to gain an advantage over competitors. At the national level basic development strategy of any government moulds opportunities and incentives for corruption. At the same level three relationships Ã¢â¬â between the government and the civil service, between the government and the judiciary and between the government and the civil society Ã¢â¬â also affect the nature and discussions of corruption. Three areas of government activity Ã¢â¬â customs administration, business regulation and management of foreign aid Ã¢â¬â act as sources of corruption at the level of individual institutions (Goudie & Strange, 2000). 2.8.2 Forms of Corruption Corruption takes many forms; acceptance of money and other rewards for awarding contracts, violation of procedures to advance personal interests, kickbacks from developmental programmes or multi-national corporations, pay-offs for legislative support, diversion of public resources for private use, overlooking illegal activities, intervening in the justice process, nepotism, common theft, overpricing, establishing non-existing projects and tax collection and tax assessment frauds (Khan, 2004). 2.9 The AuditorÃ¢â¬â¢s Role in Fighting Corruption in an Organisation Ã¢â¬Å"Auditors are the first set of gatekeepers in fighting corruption in an organisationÃ¢â¬ (Harding,2000,p.12). Auditors ensure that transactions are valid, at arms-length, captured, and properly recorded according to establishedÃ standards which contributes to the fight of corruption. Secondly, As professionals with a duty to protect the public interest, auditors are bound by rigorous codes of professional and personal ethics calling for the highest levels of integrity and objectivity. Again, with key strategic positions within an enterprise or organization; whether in an internal position or as an external position, mean that auditors very often have access to highly privileged and confidential information (Harding, 2000). Furthermore, as Balkaran (2000), puts it, the auditor helps in fighting corruption in an organisation through the performance of the respective functions on the bases of national and international standards of practice which have clear guidelines identifying, for instance, indicators of fraud and other irregularities, and reporting these to the highest levels of authorit y. Scaling down to the types of auditors, Balkaran (2000), outlines that, the revised response of internal auditing, places more responsibility on internal auditors in helping to fight corruption. After all, as the eyes and ears of management, they are there year-round, understand the operations of a business, and are bound by even more in-depth standards of performance and conduct. Moreover, the work of the internal auditor is often relied upon by the external (independent) auditors and therefore subject to more stringent requirements.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Education in Britain essays Education is a subject about which many British people care deeply. Most believe that the state should provide education free of charge and to a high standard. At election time, politicians who promise to spend more on education are popular with voters. Recently, there has been a lot of debate about students having to pay their own fees at university, as well as well as their living expenses. Some people are afraid that poorer students will not receive enough financial help and will be discouraged from going on to higher education. In Britain, education is decentralized. Apart from schools which are supported and publicly maintained, there are also the so-called public schools which are independent and which charge high fees for studying. Education in Britain is obligatory between the ages of five and fifteen. At the age of five, children go to Infant School. At the age of eleven children take the so-called eleven plus examination, determining which type of secondary school they will attend. However, this early selection has been strongly criticized and that is why many comprehensive schools have been set up, to exclude this stressful examination. There are three types of secondary schools in Britain. Children may go to grammar schools, secondary modern schools and secondary technical schools. Only about 25 per-cent of the pupils attend grammar schools. They provide education of an academic type and many students go on to university upon graduation. More children go to secondary modern schools which give a general but also more practical education. Many pupils leave school at the age of fifteen but others stay on until they are sixteen. Most grammar school children stay at school until the age of seventeen or eighteen. Upon leaving, pupils may take an examination for the General Certificate of Education. It consists of two levels 0-level (ordinary), usually taken at the age of sixte...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Start Learning English With Easy Lessons Learning English can be a challenge at first and you have to start at the very beginning. From learning the alphabet to understanding adverbs and adjectives, a few lessons will help you workÃ on the basics of the English language. ABCs and 123s The first step in learning any language is to familiarize yourself with the alphabet. English begins with the letter A and continues through Z, with a total of 26 letters. To practice pronunciation, we have a very simple ABC song that is pretty easy to learn.Ã At the same time, its a good idea to practice numbers in English. Learning how to pronounce and write numbers is very helpful in day-to-day life, like when you need to buy something at the store. Basic Grammar English has eight basic parts of speechÃ that help us with grammar and to form complete sentences that others can understand. These are the noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, conjunction, preposition, and interjection. While those are important to study, there are also a few key grammar lessons that you should learn. For instance, when should you useÃ anyÃ orÃ some? Whats the difference betweenÃ in, to, on, andÃ at? These are some of the basic questions you can find answers to in 25 short and essential English lessons. Overcome Spelling Even many native English speakers have troubles with spelling. It can be a challenge, so the more you can study, the better youll get at it. In ESL classes, teachers will share with you many of the most basic spelling rules, such as when to capitalize letters and when to useÃ ieÃ orÃ ei. There are many tricks to spelling in English and, often, the word doesnt look the same as its pronounced. In other cases, words may sound the same but are spelled differently and have different meanings. The wordsÃ to, two,Ã andÃ tooÃ are a perfect example of this. Dont let these common spelling problems discourage you, learning them right from the start will help out. Verbs, Adverbs, and Adjectives Some of the most confusing but important words in the English language are verbs, adverbs, and adjectives. Each has a different use in grammar and all are good for beginners to study. Verbs are action words; they tell us what is happening and they change tense based on whether the action is in the past, present, or future. There are also auxiliary verbs likeÃ be, do,Ã andÃ haveÃ and these are in almost every sentence. Adverbs describe something and include words likeÃ quickly, never,Ã andÃ above. Adjectives also describe things, but they tell us how somethingÃ is. For example, AshleyÃ isÃ shyÃ or the building isÃ big. More Essentials in English You have a lot to learn in English. Between your ESL classes and lessons like these, there is plenty of study material. It does get easier as you learn more and practice it in everyday life. To help out, there are a few more essentials that youll want to know. First of all, asking for help in your English class is important. The teacher may not know that you dont understand, so a few basic phrases will help out. To build your vocabulary, study the 50 most common words used in English. These are simple words that we use all the time, includingÃ and, listen,Ã andÃ yes. Telling time is also important. It goes along with your number lesson and will help you understand when you need to be somewhere so youre not late.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Ethnic and morality - Essay Example Friedrich Nietzsche had a personal belief that morality is anti-nature. In fact, Nietzsche states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Every naturalism in morality-that is every health morality-is dominated by an instinct of lifeÃ¢â¬ (349). Indeed, Nietzsche helps us to define the idea of anti-nature by asserting that a human being is seemingly refuting the reality by denying their personal passion. In fact, according to Nietzsche and his moral philosophy, the healthiest moralities accommodate natural aspects while the unhealthy moralities negate nature. Nature derives human desires, which consequently define individual personality and how human beings behave. As such, I hold this fact and strongly oppose NietzscheÃ¢â¬â¢s notion that morality is anti-nature. Friedrich Nietzsche observes that human beings should have the free will to choose what they want without coercion from any external forces. He further quotes that, Ã¢â¬Å"Anti-natural molarity-that is almost every morality which has so far been ta ught, revered, and preached-turns conversely against the instincts of life: it is condemnation of these instinctsÃ¢â¬ (349). He also disputed the common notion that religions like Christianity drive human life and consequently asserted that religion and dominance of morality inhibits human nature. In this context, Nietzsche argued that ardent followers of a certain religion ignore the nature of humanity since religion forces individuals to behave in a manner that will please the supreme ruler of the reference religion. Friedrich Nietzsche holds that religion especially Christianity opposes human nature because it gives a leeway to individuals to adopt religious doctrines about human life hence limiting individuals from celebrating nature. Indeed, Nietzsche states that the most general foundation of every religion and morality is, Ã¢â¬Å"Do this and that, refrain from this and that,-then you will be happyÃ¢â¬ (352)! He uses this explanation to support the concept of anti-nature in morality. Notably, Nietzsche refers to morality as anti-nature by asserting that human desires control what individuals do, do not do, and confirms that morality distracts the course of nature. Nevertheless, various philosophers identify with the fact that nature generates human desires that consequently define human personality and morality. For instance, Immanuel KantÃ¢â¬â¢s moral philosophy and other philosophers like Locke and Hobbes argues that moral requirements rely on a standard of rationality which is either based on desire instrumental principles of rationality or on rational intuition. This contradicts with NietzscheÃ¢â¬â¢s assumption that human nature is prone to alteration by both morality and religion. Most specifically, I note that Nietzsche depicts religious people like Christians as hypocrites who can do anything to please God at the expense of altering their human nature. Ideally, Christians are rational beings who do not have such morality. Indeed, very fe w Christians would identify with NietzscheÃ¢â¬â¢s argument since his ideas discourage Christians from following their religion. Notably, NietzscheÃ¢â¬â¢s argument that religion alters human nature by allowing Christians to adopt variant aspects of life that prevent them from celebrating life is misguided. This is because Christians have morals that allow then to enjoy their lives just like any other person. In fact, his argument is not universal since it only addresses Christians thus leaving a significant would population. Assuredly, Nietzsche discourages people from
Friday, November 1, 2019
Film Clip - Movie Review Example In the latter part of the clip, the sounds from the set gets more and more clearer. Noises from the outside of Uncle Jean's room can be deciphered by anyone. The sound of the voices in the other rooms, the noise of dishes clanging to the unexplainable sounds emerging from Uncle Jean's radio. The makers of this film wanted it to be more realistic, so they opted to choose the natural sounds coming from the set itself instead of using sound effects and dubbing the characters' voices. None, absolutely none of the sounds in the whole of the film was altered, omitted nor edited. The director captured the heart of the film by doing so. Employing sound effects would make an impression of the film as unrealistic, commercial or will make it seem as if it was overdone. If the viewer listens very thoroughly to all of the film's sounds, even the slightest and the most unimportant of those, he will get a feel of what it is like to be in that hospital room with the beautiful Carmen and her eccentric Uncle Jean. Style / Mis-en-scene/Editing/Plot The 5-minute French film clip, when initially judged by a viewer, looks like a film made in the late 1980's or the early 1990's, the hairstyle of one of the two characters. The quality of the picture states out the hint that the film was probably shot in the 1970's. Other than that, one can not interpret when the movie was made. The style of the scene location is undeniably bleak, it was obviously shot wholly in the hospital room of Carmen's Uncle Jean. The color of the hospital room even adds to the gloom of the purely conversational and poignant film. It looks like a working class hospital in France because of the way his room looks, it doesn't look dirty and shabby, and neither does it look clean and hygienic. Well, it is not that important to dwell on those aspects of the film. Humans express themselves and their emotions in a variety of modes. Whether it be actions, words, pictures, speeches and the like. Each and every one of these modes may be branded as a "language" (mode of expression and communication). In the film, the characters expressed themselves very clearly, from their gestures to their facial expressions. Uncle John is obviously depressed and bored with his situation, so the visit of his niece Carmen felt like utter relief from him, a refuge from his boredom. In his dialogue, he is confusingly reluctant to grant his niece's request to borrow his apartment unit in Trouville. On the set, the lighting did an almost perfect job in blending with the overall ambience of the hospital room, there was barely any light other than sunlight outside the room. Most probably, the scene was morning, so the overall appearance of the room contrasted with the lightness, eagerness and the joyful atmosphere of the morning. The conversation between the two is not movie-like. It was realistically executed and delivered by the characters as if they were really their characters, as if they weren't
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
1918 Flu Pandemic Brings Higher Fatalities than World War 1 - Research Paper Example The third section investigates the public health and medical issues at the times of the outbreak. Medical response to the pandemic is investigated in the fourth section and finally, the lessons learned from the outbreak are discussed in the fifth and final section. According to CDC (2006), the 1918 flu pandemic killed 2% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s human population because of lack of sufficient knowledge about the virus and ineffective medical response. The 1918 flu pandemic provides important lessons for effective monitoring and management of flu outbreaks. Flu pandemics are serious threat to human existence, because of viral antigenic drift that produces new variant strains in every two to three years (Michael, 1998). Introduction The world today remains under serious threat of influenza pandemics. The last ten years have been characterized by outbreak of flu in different parts of the world causing deaths and widespread panic. Although the scale of the recent flu outbreaks do not compare with 1918 pandemic in terms of infections and fatalities, it is evident that the world population remains highly vulnerable to the infection. The United States Department of Health and Human Services (2006) classifies influenza into three different categories. These include seasonal flu, avian flu and pandemic flu. Seasonal flu also called common flu is a respiratory infection that affects people frequently. Although there is a vaccine for seasonal flu, the immune system of most people is capable of fighting the infection. Bird or avian flu is a zoonotic infection transmitted from wild birds to human beings. The H5NI virus that causes avian flu is extremely infectious and fatal to domestic birds. The main medical concern of the avian flu is that currently, there is no effective vaccine against the infection and people do not have immunity. Finally, pandemic flu is highly infectious ailment affecting human beings and it has the potential of causing global outbreak and severe disease s (United States Department of Health And Human Services, 2006). People have minimal immunity against flu infection and therefore the disease is transmitted quickly across an expansive geographic area. In the last century, devastating flu pandemics were reported in different parts of the globe. CDC (2006) estimated that over 43 million people in the world died from flu pandemics in the last 20th century alone. Some of the major flu pandemics included the 1918 Spanish flu, the Asian flu pandemic in 1957 and the Hong Kong Flu of 1968. Historical Perspective of the 1918 Ã¢â¬Å"Spanish FluÃ¢â¬ Pandemic Before investigating the historical background of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, it is important to interrogate the meanings of pandemic and influenza. Michael (1998;51) defines pandemic as an Ã¢â¬Å"epidemic of human ailment that occurs over a wide geographical area, crossing international boundaries and affecting large number of peopleÃ¢â¬ . There are different forms of pathogens t hat cause pandemics, including the current HIV/AIDS virus, influenza and in the past, the plague that infected and killed numerous people in the world around 14th century. Flu is the short form of influenza and it causes respiratory disorders in human beings. According to Barry (2004), the common symptoms of flu infection includes fever, muscle aches, cough and in rare circumstances, opportunistic infections such as pneumonia occurs in patients infected with the virus. Flu virus is one of the major causes of death and it affects people of all ages. Human beings are the primary hosts of the virus but it can also spread to domestic animals including horses, pigs and
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Shock And Anaphylactic Shock Shock is a medical emergency in which the organs and tissues of the body are not receiving a sufficient flow of blood. This deprives the organs and tissues of oxygen (which is carried in the blood) and allows the buildup of waste products. Shock can result in serious damage or even death. (Shock, 2008) Shock is usually caused by three major categories of problems: cardiogenic (problems associated with the heart), hypovolemic (total volume of blood available to circulate is low), and septic shock (infection in the blood). Cardiogenic shock can be caused by any disease which prevents the heart muscle from pumping strongly enough to circulate the blood normally. Heart attack, disturbances of the electrical rhythm of the heart, and any kind of mass which interferes with flow out of the heart are all things that affect the hearts ability to pump a normal quantity of blood. Hypovolemic shock happens when the total volume of blood in the body falls well below normal. This can happen when there is excess fluid loss, as in dehydration due to vomiting or diarrhea, diseases which cause excess urination (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, and kidney failure), extensive burns, blockage in the intestines, inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), or severe bleeding anywhere in or througho ut the body. Septic shock can occur when an untreated or inadequately treated infection is allowed to grow in the body. Bacteria often produce toxins which can cause injury throughout the body. When large quantities of these bacteria, and the toxins, begin circulating in the bloodstream, every organ and tissue in the body is at risk of their damaging effects. The most damaging consequences of these bacteria and toxins include poor functioning of the heart muscles, widening of the diameter of the blood vessels, drops in blood pressure, activation of the blood clotting system that causes blood clots, followed by uncontrollable bleeding, damage to the lungs, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome, liver failure, kidney failure, and coma. (Weil, 2007) Treatment of shock includes keeping the patient warm, with legs raised and head down (to improve blood flow to the brain), putting a needle in a vein in order to give fluids or blood transfusions, giving the patient extra oxygen to breathe, medications to improve the hearts functioning, and treating the underlying condition which led to shock. The most preventable type of shock is caused by dehydration during an illnesses with severe vomiting or diarrhea. Shock can be avoided by realizing that a patient who is unable to drink needs to be given fluids intravenously. Other types of shock are only preventable by preventing the underlying conditions, or monitor and manage those conditions well enough so that they never progress to the point of shock. An anaphylactic shock is a rapidly progressing, life-threatening allergic reaction. This allergic reaction can start within seconds of exposure, and rapidly develop to cause airway constriction, skin and intestinal irritation, and abnormal heart rhythms. An anaphylactic shock is caused by the release of histamine and other chemicals from mast cells. Mast cells are a type of white blood cell and they are found in tissues that regulate exchange with our environment. Mast cells have antibodies called IgE (immunoglobulin type E). IgE are made to detect environmental substances to which the immune system is sensitive. A substance that most people can tolerate, but others have an allergic response, is called an allergen. When IgE antibodies come together with allergens, they cause the mast cells to release histamine and other chemicals, which mix into all of the bodys cells. This causes your bodys vessels to leak fluid into surrounding tissues, causing the fluid accumulation, redness, and swelling. On smooth muscle cells of the airways and digestive system, they cause constriction. On nerve endings, they cause itching. (Molle, Durham, Kronenberger, West-Stack, 2004) In an anaphylactic shock, the life threatening response is due to extreme hypersensivity to the allergen. Exposure by ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact causes anaphylaxis. Specific causes are fish, shellfish, nuts, stings of bees, wasps, or hornets, vaccines, antibiotics, insulin, hormones, aspirin and latex. Symptoms of an anaphylactic shock are hives, swelling of the tongue or mouth swelling of sinuses, difficulty breathing, wheezing, cramping, vomiting, diarrhea, anxiety, confusion, high BP, or loss of consciousness. Emergency treatment of anaphylaxis involves injection of epinephrine which helps constricts blood vessels and counteracts the effects of histamine. Oxygen can be given. Antihistamines can be used for skin rash, and amino-phylline for bronchial constriction. If the airway is obstructed, placement of a breathing tube would be needed as well. (Molle, Durham, Kronenberger, West-Stack, 2004) The prognosis of an anaphylactic shock depends on how quickly emergency medical attention is given. However, death is possible from severe anaphylaxis. For those who receive rapid treatment, speedy recovery is likely. The only reliable method of preventing an anaphylactic shock is complete avoidance of the allergen. For insect allergies, it is recommended to learn nesting sites and habits. To prevent food allergies, have knowledge of prepared foods or dishes in which the allergen is likely to be present and careful observations and questioning about ingredients when dining out. Also, use of a Medi-Al ert tag listing drug allergies is vital to prevent unintentional administration of drugs during a medical emergency. People prone to anaphylaxis should carry an Epi-pen that contains adrenaline for immediate injection. In conclusion, both shock and anaphylactic shock are extreme medical emergencies that should be handled with effectiveness and precision. It is crucial for the medical professional to be educated on the steps needed to respond to this emergency. Additionally patients should be educated on steps to prevent these shocks, and how to properly contact medical personnel.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Pigs' Role in Animal Farm by George Orwell At the start of the novel Orwell describes the pigs to be the "cleverest of the animals." This is clearly an advantage and so leads to the pigs taking over the farm. There is a sense of leadership very soon after Old Major's death as the three pigs, Snowball, Napoleon and Squealer arrange meetings with the other animals and already begin to give orders. "You do not need sugar," says Snowball. It is evident here that Snowball believes that he has power over the other animals already. Further on during the second chapter Snowball and Napoleon send for a ladder, proving that they think they can use the animals to do jobs and progresses more in chapter 3 when they believe that they can direct and supervise the other animals and not actually do the work themselves. In chapter two Napoleon says, "Comrade Napoleon will lead the way." Using the word "lead" shows that the pigs think of themselves as more than just teachers and even have their own headquarters soon after. It is clear to us that the pigs are using their intelligence to trick the other animals and play mind games with them. Orwell describes Snowball as a "more vivacious pig than Napoleon." We can see this whilst he is still on the farm, as he is always doing things to benefit the whole of the farm, not just himself whereas Napoleon is. "Snowball made a little speech, emphasizing the need for all animals to be ready to die for Animal farm if need be." It is evident from this quote that Snowball is very passionate about the farm and will do anything to improve it. His passion for the farm is very much shown at the battle of the cowshed where he is in charge of the attack against Jones and other farmers. ... ...oleon-we have won every inch of it back again!" Squealer is making it out to be a good thing maybe because Napoleon wants the animals to still think of him as a great leader. The animals soon believe that what they have done is great and so join in with the celebrations. Another use of Squealer by Napoleon is to increase the belief that Snowball is a menace so they think of Napoleon as a better leader and Snowball as a traitor. Napoleon is always maintaining his power throughout the novel and also uses Squealer to do this by giving credit to Napoleon for everything and reminding the animals that he is a great leader even if what he is doing is wrong. This way the pigs are able to benefit greatly from communism which is what they wanted from the rebellion. They show no interest in improving the farm itself but only in the strength of their power over it.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Globalization has become one of the principal symbols of economic, cultural and political life in the 21st century. Although there is no precise definition of globalization, due to the complexity of the term and the varying attitudes towards it, put simply it is the process by which nationality is becoming all the time more irrelevant. International organizations such as Coca Cola, Disney, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, Sony, Shell Oil and IBM, symbolize such a process. In laymanÃ¢â¬â¢s terms, globalization is basically the means by which people around the globe are now more connected to each other than ever before. Information and money flow more swiftly and goods and services produced in one part of the globe are progressively more obtainable worldwide. International travel is also more frequent and international communication is routine. However globalization as we know it today is vastly different from its humble beginnings. The following essay will look at the effect global institutions h ave on a national level and whether they challenge or defend the interests of the nation. Richard PeetÃ¢â¬â¢s reading deals with the beginning of globalization, brought on by a struggle for dominance and control of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s resources, through the use of coercion. Globalization was heralded by ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery of America in 1492. European capitalists then required labour to develop their new found continent. This came in the form of slavery, Ã¢â¬Å"black slavery had an economic rather than merely a racial basis Ã¢â¬â it was used because it was cheaper.Ã¢â¬ (Peet, R. pg.120) This lead to the demise of AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s potential for development as millions of slaves were taken from their homeland. This left a void of labour in Africa, therefore inhibiting their ability to develop their own nation. This is still prevalent in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society as sweatshops in underdeveloped countries with deplorable conditions are used as labour for many of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s global institutions such as Nike and Polo Ralph Lauren (see attached table 9.3, Klein, N. pg.528) Wallerstein reading addresses the rise of socialism and communism as an antidote to the capitalist value of progress at any cost. He ponders whether or not Ã¢â¬Å"historical capitalism represents progress or regression.Ã¢â¬ (Wallerstein, I. pg.100) He believes Ã¢â¬Å"historical capitalism has developed an ideological framework of oppressive humiliationÃ¢â¬ ¦which today we call sexismÃ and racism.Ã¢â¬ (Wallerstein, I. pg.102) Globalization has led to a very small group having a monopoly over world trade. In Australia the richest 10 percent of its population Ã¢â¬Å"own 85% of all shares, 72% of rental investment properties and 60% of business assets.Ã¢â¬ (Kelly. S, 2001) However, contrasting views do exist in relation to globalization, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to assess both the positive and negative impact. Globalization has allowed for the creation of a new world politics, in which countries are not isolated units anymore. Globally the world has become united in dealing with issues such as pollution and environmental standards. Recent developments in information and communication technology allow individuals from different regions to communicate speedily across huge distances and access information rapidly. Democracy is spreading rapidly which is leading to the development of a common culture. Between 1975 and 1995 the number of democracies in the world increased from 36 to 75 states, which coincided with the globalization boom, and has lead to much closer links between nations. For less developed countries, globalization offers access to foreign capital, global export markets, and advanced technology, allowing faster growth which in turn promotes poverty reduction, democratization, and higher labour and environmental standards. (www.freetrade.org/issues/globalization.html) In contrast opponents to globalization believe it increases inequality between nations. Such inequality is caused due to the rapid expansion of trade and economic developments without reference to human rights and labour standards. Globalization inhibits governments from subjecting worldwide economic forces to regulation and control. The uneven distribution of wealth associated with rapid globalization may be widening the gap between certain countries and regions. In order for a nation to prosper in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, they must possess the core foundation of competitiveness. Such competitiveness leads to the exploitation of poorer nations, further contributing to the uneven distribution of wealth. Global organizations increase their profit margins at the expense of the sweatshop worker whose human and civil rights are being violated. Illegal activities such asÃ terrorism and drug trafficking have been allowed to flourish due to the free movement of goods and persons, the hallm ark of globalization. In conclusion globalization bodes both good and ill for mankind however nevertheless appears to be here to stay, whether we like or not. The challenge that lies ahead is not to try and reverse it, but to harness the positive potential whilst minimising the adverse effects. Unless this opportunity is seized, nations and global institutions will continue to struggle for domination and power. Those nations and institutions unable to compete and adapt in their current global economic climate will continue to be used by those that can. It is now up to mankind to decide wether or not the power will be cleverly used or not. Bibliography Kelly, S. (2001) AustraliansÃ¢â¬â¢ wealth and retirement, http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/10635/20011112/www.onlineopinion.com.au/2001/Jul01/Kelly.htm, accessed 05/05/03 Klein, N. (2000) No Logo, Table 9.3. Sweatshop Profiles, London: Flamingo Peet, R. (1991) Global Capitalism: Theories of societal development, London: Routledge, pp. 114-124 Wallerstein, I. (1983) Historical Capitalism, London: Verso, pp. 97-110) http://www.freetrade.org/issues/globalization.html, The Benefits of Globalization, accessed 04/05/03