Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Seventh Chapter of Romans - 1139 Words

The seventh chapter of Romans remains one of the more controversial sections of Paul’s final letter. This paper will attempt to provide a unique interpretation and of vv14-25 . This section is rhetorically and stylistically challenging, and there is no consensus as to audience, or meaning. It might be seen as offering up a very low anthropology, and a pessimistic view of the human condition. Even the central question of who is thought to be speaking in the majority of the chapter remains a hotly contested question. Nevertheless, in the face of perceived ambiguity, the speaker of Romans Chapter 7 offers an insight into the deep schism of action and thought that is found in each human mind, which can only be escaped through the grace and†¦show more content†¦She is saying I do not understand my own actions. In a different sense, she is exclaiming that those actions are understood all too well. Even if she were able to appeal to the law, or to some basic morality , info rming her as to what was right, it does not give her the power to consistently execute on it. This is the realization that cognitive exercises can be productive, but alone are not sufficient to bring about action. There is a schism, or divide that separates the two, over which the power of though alone is not able to travel. For her, this schism leads only to death. Through this voice, we are provided with the juxtaposition of doing good and sinning, of the law of God and the law of our members, and of the direction of the mind and the actions of the body. The acknowledgement of this schism gives rise to an infinite regression of self-reflexive thought seen in vv18-24. One look inward gives way to another, and then yet another. Each glance towards her self-betraying mind makes her more aware of the next layer of confusion that lies below. The desire to serve God leads directly to a war with â€Å"sin that dwells in [her] members† (v23). Looking beyond the fact that this self- reflexive exercise is completely unfulfilling, it is also unending. In an expression of exasperation, we find the lasting question, â€Å"who will rescue me from this body of death?† (v24). Some may see this critique as damning or dismissive towards the law in general. It isShow MoreRelatedThe Book Of Revelation, The Final Book Of The Bible1223 Words   |  5 Pageskingdom and patience that are in Jesus, was on the island which is called Patmos, because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus. Revelations 1:9-10 There is speculation that John was imprisoned on Patmos for the crime of not worshiping the Roman emperor. It is a popular tradition for many to believe John the apostle to be the author of revelation, however the writer of revelation never claimed to be an apostle. The literary form in this book is called apocalyptic writing. This means thatRead MoreMartin Luther And The Birth Of Protestantism1505 Words   |  7 Pages16th century. The reason why I chose this book is because the reformation is one of my favorite subject. I studied it in high-school, I preached about it and every single time, I always learn something new that makes be proud and happy to be the Seventh-day Adventist Christian I am today. Martin Luther is my favorite reformer because he dared to stand against the errors and false teachings of the Catholic Church even when he was threatened to die. Also, I chose this book because I love learning aboutRead MoreAfter the Way Called Heresy Book Review1140 Words   |  5 Pageshistory. Chapter 1 In chapter one we find the foundation of the whole book, in this chapter we discover the two main philosophical bases that have been in use through the history of mankind. Plato emphasis was (man should live by changeless ideals and align himself with himself. 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Nero was born in AD 37 on December 15 to Agrippina and GnaeusRead MoreEssay on A Review of Peter Brown’s Augustine of Hippo1539 Words   |  7 Pageswith â€Å"Africa,† a chapter detailing the section of northern Africa:   its Greco-Roman literary and political history, painting a picture of the world Augustine came from.   The next chapter, titled â€Å"Monica,† describes Augustine’s parents, particularly his mother, and their religious beliefs and socioeconomic status.   â€Å"Education,† the third chapter, is about the future bishop’s early education, focusing on his introduction to his favorite school subject, Latin literature.   The next chapter in the logicalRead MoreEssay on The Lutheran Church and The Catholic Church804 Words   |  4 Pagesand was a combination of three branches of the Lutheran religion: the American Lutheran church, the Association of Evangelical Lutheran churches, and the Lutheran Church in America. In 2 012 the ELCA had 3,950,924 baptized members. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

K D Logistics Free Essays

K D Supply Chain Solutions Pvt Ltd www. kdlogistics. co. We will write a custom essay sample on K D Logistics or any similar topic only for you Order Now in Campus Pre Placement Talk KD Supply Chain Solutions Pvt. Ltd. To be most efficient and effective Third party logistics Provider in India†¦.. Our Vision Efficient: ? Productivity. Effective: ? Quality, Flexibility, Service level. efficient and effective ? Cost Minimization. ? Profit maximization. ? Supply Driven ? Demand (Customer) ? Doing Things Right. driven To be most efficient and effective Third party logistics Provider in India†¦.. Services†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ THIRD PARTY LOGISTICS WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT SERVICES TRANSPORTATION SERVICES CUSTOMISATION CENTER OPERATIONS ORDER MANAGMENT SERVCICES WAREHOUSE CONSTRUCTION DIVISION Services†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ THIRD PARTY LOGISTICS Inventory management Pick and pack operation Dispatch planning Invoicing Collection Quality control and audit Material handling Document management Stock audits Cycle counting Reverse Logistics Services†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT SERVICES Every client has a different requirement from its supply chain and we strive to meet that need as closely as we can. Customization is possible for: Automated operation with racking Temperature controlled Raw material handling Finished good handling Energy saving and environment friendly Services†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ TRANSPORTATION SERVICES ? Primary Transportation. ? Secondary Transportation. ? Home delivery system. Services†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ CUSTOMISATION CENTER OPERATIONS ?We have dedicated and specialized team operating product customization and intermediate packaging system. ? This team focuses on managing client’s inventory by eliminating transporting time to the packaging facility ? These centers assembles products to suit local market down stream supply chain channel requirements. Services†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ WAREHOUSE CONSTRUCTION DIVISION ?We have established ourselves in the construction of warehouses to suit clients’ needs and specific requirements. ? We have developed our own Logistics Park spanning 1. 5 million sq. ft. We are the first 3PL to be to create own infrastructure at Bhiwandi (near Mumbai), Mandideep (Madhya Pradesh) and Gurgaon (NCR). WAREHOUSE CONSTRUCTION DIVISION Special feature: Bhiwandi Logistics Park ? Strategically located and very close Mumbai city touching NH3 ? Racked PEB structure ? State of the art logistics park with a floor strength of 4mt per sq mtrs ? Column less span of 150 feet which facilitate seamless movement of goods with in the facility. ? Exclusive parking facility for more than 100 vehicles. ? Separate entry and exit point for all warehouses. ? Seamless IT connectivity ? Uninterrupted power supply Important Statistics Revenue Logistics- INR 80 Cr †¢ Owned Warehouse Space- 15 lac sq feet †¢ Warehouse space maintained by KDL – FMCG – About 35 lac sq. feet – Retail – About 15 lac sq feet Summer internship -2013 What are we looking for LEADERSHIP OWNERSHIP TEAM PLAYER DESCISION MAKER Summer internship -2013 What is there for you †¦ †¢ An opportunity which give you ownership. †¢ An opportunity which give direct interaction to our clients. †¢ Exposure to supply chain s ector. †¢ An opportunity to explore your entrepreneurial instincts. We†¦. Just started How to cite K D Logistics, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Inequality at the Work Place

Question: Discuss about the Inequality at the Work Place. Answer: Introduction Each and every society is always characterized by specific stratifications. Depending on the nature of these divisions, the aspect of inequality tends to arise among the individuals. Within a societal set up, inequality may arise along specific boundaries for instance, age, gender, power, authority, ethnic orientation, religion, educational achievements and wealth just to mention but few. Business organizations present a societal unit comprising people from diverse backgrounds all brought together by the key goals and objectives of the organization. The human resource within organizations comprises different individuals which is the sole reason for the existence of inequality in organizations. In order to adequately manage inequality in organizations, it is important to highlight the various perspectives by writers and theories with regard to this concept. Despite the existence of various perspectives, this essay focuses on the symbolic interpretivist and postmodernist perspectives ( Arakawa and Greenberg, 2007). The discussion of the perspectives and the analysis of aspect of inequality in organizations shall be made while focusing on two articles namely Trapped by Metaphors for organizations: Thinking and seeing womens equality and inequality by Linzi Kemp and Deconstructing the privilege and power of employee engagement: Issues of inequality in management and human resource development by Brad, Joshua, Tonette and Raquel. The articles involve different approaches as demonstrated by the writers while highlighting the aspect of inequality at work place. From the analysis of these perspectives, the paper intends to explore some of the causes and impacts of inequality in organization. By comparing the two perspectives to inequality, the essay shall be summarized with recommendations on how managers can use this data on inequality to deal with organizational issues related to the concept in question (Trice and Beyer, 2009). Inequality at work place from the symbolic interpretivist point of view Reference article: Trapped by metaphors for organizations: Thinking and seeing womens equality and inequality by Linzi Kemp The symbolic interpretivist perspective is concerned with how individuals in a group use symbols and images and how these approaches affect the outcome of their relations and other collective processes within the group. From the interpretivist point of view, the aspect of social stratification in any society is inevitable hence it forms a basic function within organizations. This perspective highlight aspects such as symbolic predispositions, process as well as prior practices influence the nature of interactions between individuals within a group or organization. From this position, we can deduce that in any given group, individual tend to view each other based on their preformed images of them. For instance, variations in gender, ethnicity, religion and sexual orientation act as some of the basic symbols which determine the outcome of interactions between individuals at the place of work. (Bakker and Demerouti, 2007). It is also a fact worth noting that the above symbols are actual ly the elements which curve out the aspect of diversity at work place. Consequently, it can be highlighted that the different symbols used in groups constitute the diversity in the group and hence the existence of inequality. The arguments by Linz involve the use of various metaphors to outline the aspect of gender and women equality and inequality in organizations. The article which takes an interpretive approach highlights the various images of women as presented by the society and how these images impact the treatment of women in organizations. From the introductory portion above, we have deduced that various elements describe inequality in organizations. At the same time, different individuals tend to have varied approaches while highlighting the aspect of inequality. While others feel the aspects of gender, class, ethnic variations and religions are the leading reasons behind inequality, most post-modernist writers tend to believe that the desire for social stability, power, wealth and hence rise in status quo adequately explains the rise and existence of inequality in organizations (Bakker, Schaufeli, Leiter and Taris, 2008). For instance, by reviewing the thematic discussions in the chosen readings, we note that Linzi Kemp employs a more symbolic interpretive approach while exploring the aspect of inequality. This she achieves by narrowing the discussion to gender as one of the core elements which define inequality in organizations. The author notes the rather casual approach given to the feminine efforts in organizations as a result of prior and historical symbolic predispositions. (Claude and Michael, 2006). The basic idea here is that women are different from men in terms of a number of factors which may include rationality, work ethics, work output, commitment and quality delivery just to mention but few. These differences represent the symbols used to view and hence interpret their capabilities within the organizations. With reference to ancient research, women were never given many opportunities in organizations due to the prior belief that they were incapable of handling certain responsibilities. The prior belief acts as an ancient image of women which did and continues to adversely affect how women are viewed in organizations. As a result, most top positions in institutions and organizations would be dominated by men. This explains the rise of gender inequality in most organizations especially in the pas t centuries. However with the rise of modernism and postmodernism, the women have since been availed with almost equal opportunities especially in line with education. This implies that the women are well in a position to study and hence have the same academic qualifications just like the man (Chalofsky, 2007). They can therefore be employed in any organization and accorded top positions not necessary based on their gender but on academic qualifications. It is however a fact worth noting that this transition has been overlooked in certain spheres and as revealed in the reading, women still face opposition in certain areas where they lack equal chances with the men as a result of their gender. This amounts to conflicts in organizations due to the fact that inequality has been viewed as a tool for disunity and not necessarily an avenue for developing performance within the organization (Steven, 2010). The authors use of metaphors to present image of women in organizations from different perspectives indicates women inequality in the work place as an issue which is far from over. By basing the research on extensive review of literature, the article reveals views women inequality both from a theoretical perspective as well as from the point of view of postmodern writers. The discussions and findings however reveal a common aspect with regard to the treatment of women at the workplace (Timothy, 2007). The discussions also outline the fact that some of the unfair treatments towards the women are the leading causes of inequality and hence conflicts in organizations. Research indicates that the participation of women in the places of work has improved tremendously over the past years. However, theoretical stipulations point out that achieving equality especially for women in organizations has remained a hard objective to achieve due to the fact that gender remains a key organizational i ssue (Christian and Slaughter, 2011). With the continued review of the authors metaphoric assumptions, it can be deduced that the position given to women in organizations during the 19th and 20th centuries is quite different from the situation in the current modern world. The article indicates that women employment and them being accorded leadership positions was unheard of in the past (Collins and Callahan, 2012). However, the number of women entering the workforce and even getting leadership positions at board levels has improved significantly over the past years. This trend indicates that despite the existence of gender based issues in organizations, the corporate world and managers in particular has continued to device the right methodologies in a bid to ensure that inequality in terms of gender does not limit the womens opportunities especially in the work place. The changing trends serve to erase the ancient assumptions where organizations were only treated as a mans world and a no entry zone for the women. The cur rent organizational structures adequately factor in women hence giving them equal opportunities just like the men. The concepts summarized in the article indicate the conflicting views towards women and organizations which adequately outlines the conflict theory perspective to inequality as demonstrated by the writer. In order to enhance organizational cohesion and unity, it would be important to view women not based on the image of gender but as crucial objects within the human resource fraternity equally capable of achieving key organizational goals just like the men. Inequality in organizations from the post-modernist perspective Reference article: Deconstructing the Privilege and Power of Employee Engagement: Issues of Inequality for Management and Human Resource Development by Brad, Joshua, Tonette and Raquel According to Bakker and Demerouti (2008), the postmodernist perspective to inequality in organizations stipulates that a society is often divided along social, political and material boundaries. This perspective highlights these components as the main reasons behind inequality especially in groups and organizations. This perspective treats the interaction between individuals within any given social set as an avenue for competition for power, wealth, authority and the distributed resources. This perspective emphasizes on the role of the postmodern innovations on impacting inequality at work place. The dynamic society has led to a lot of transitions in communication, education systems; knowledge based management as well as differences in management approaches. This has led to rise in competition since each individual thrives to keep their grip on the power and privileges accorded to them within the organizations. When such approaches are not carefully controlled, the quest for power an d authority overshadows the need to observe organizational objectives and hence inequality at the work place. Similar to the prepositions deduced from the postmodernist perspectives, the article equally constructs inequality at the workplace along the boundaries of power, authority, wealth and class. Review of relevant literature equally lists these elements as some of the leading causes of inequality in organizations. It is however interesting to note that the postmodernists justify inequality by mentioning that the desire to remain in high places of power and authority leads to motivation of workers to offer more and exploit their capabilities (Jeff and Michael, 2009). However the authors assumptions are carefully outlined and the discussions end with amicable recommendations. The conclusions by the authors laced with the postmodernist approaches do not make inequality an obstacle to organizational growth but rather views it as a constructive phenomenon in organizations. The article focuses on power and privilege as some of the core determinants of inequality at the place of work. These are the very elements outlined by postmodernists as the reasons behind the existence of inequality at work place. From the authors arguments, we can deduce that privileges and power have a direct effect on value, experience and benefits of employee engagement. At the same time, the aspects of power and privilege have a special way of defining the context of a workplace. For instance when the persons in authority execute their responsibilities professionally and constructively, the work environment is likely to remain conducive and healthy for better performance and improvement (Richard and Kate, 2009). On the other hand, if an organization comprises leaders in high places who use their powers and authority to press unnecessary policies on the lower level workers then the workplace environment is likely to be characterized by grumbling, disunity, low engagement and poo r motivation. The authors in this article move further to outline the need for a more constructive approach which ensures positive impacts of inequality (Purcell, 2014). Despite the fact that inequality at the work place is inevitable, the reading suggest that it is within the sole power of the managers to ensure the existence of controlled systems which would not only see an improvement in the value of employee engagement but also ensure that this form of engagement improves both individual and organizational performance. This could be achieved by ensured adequate control of the powers and privileges given to the workers. The approach creates a unique system in which no worker feels discriminated despite the existence of different levels of power and privileges (Rich, Lepine and Crawford, 2010). Conclusion While symbolic interpretivist perspective on inequality views the concept as a cause of conflicts in organizations, the postmodernist approach offers a more liberal image where inequality is a depicted as a tool which could possibly be used by managers to enhance worker engagement (Richman, 2006). The two perspectives with reference to the two readings therefore reveal the varied sides of inequality in organizations. Due to the fact that the work place is characterized by a lot of diversity, the existence of inequality is almost inevitable. It is also a fact worth noting that when this issue is not adequately managed, it may lead to negative impacts on employee engagement and hence a decline on the general organizational performance. It would therefore be crucial for managers to come up with effective methodologies of managing inequality at the workplace. Such approaches may involve giving equal opportunities to both the men and women within the workforce without necessarily using th e image of gender to determine who gets the opportunities. The managers can also control the powers and privileges given to various workers within the organization as this would ensure that they use their privileges constructively and ultimately in a manner that benefits the organization. Training and communication to employees on the impacts of inequality would also help the managers to instill a positive perspective in the workers. With good management, inequality at the workplace can be easily changed from the challenge that it has been into an effective tool for organizational development. References Arakawa, D. and Greenberg, M. (2007) Optimistic managers and their influence on productivity and employee engagement in a technology organization: Implications for coaching psychologists.Coaching Psychology Review, 2, pp. 78-89. Bakker, A. and Demerouti, E. (2007) The jobs-demands resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, pp. 309-328. Bakker, A. and Demerouti, E. (2008) Towards a model of work engagement. Career Development International, 13, pp. 209-223. Bakker, A., Schaufeli, W., Leiter, M., and Taris, T. (2008) Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupational health psychology. Work Stress, 22, pp. 187-200. Claude S. and Michael, H. (2006) Century of Difference: How America Changed in the Last One Hundred Years. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Chalofsky, N. (2007) An emerging construct for meaningful work. Human Resource Development International, 6, pp. 69-83. Christian, M. and Slaughter, J. (2011) Work engagement: A quantitative Review and test of its relations with task and contextual performance. Personnel Psychology,64, pp. 89-136. Collins, J. and Callahan, L. (2012) Risky business: Gay identity disclosure in a masculinized Industry. Human Resource Development International, 15, pp. 455-470 Jeff, M and Michael, S. (2009) Inequality and Society: Social Science Perspectives on Social Stratification. New York: W.W. Norton. Richard, W and Kate, P. (2009) The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger. London: Bloomsbury Press. Purcell, J. (2014) Disengaging from engagement. Human Resource Management Journal, 24,241-254. Rich, B., Lepine, J. and Crawford, E. (2010) Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. The Academy of Management Journal, 53, pp. 617-635. Richman, A. (2006) Everyone wants an engaged workforce how can you create it? Workspan, 49, pp. 36-39. Steven, H. (2010) Europes Promise: Why the European Way is the Best Hope in an Insecure Age. California: University of California Press. Timothy, M. (2007) Poor Kids in a Rich Country: Americas Children in Comparative Perspective. London: Russell Sage Foundation. Trice, H. and Beyer, J. M. (2009) The culture of work organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Thursday, April 2, 2020

Geographical Pressures to Deviate from Franchise Formats

Introduction Background to the study Cox and Masson (2007, p.1054) define franchising as ‘contractual business relationships involving the franchisor and the franchisee, which operate as legally independent business entities’. Through such relationships, franchisees have the legal right to use the franchisors’ business name, products and services, blueprint, or specialised aspects in their trading process.Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on Geographical Pressures to Deviate from Franchise Formats specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cox and Masson (2007, p.1055) add that the ‘franchisor offers the franchisee the necessary support systems necessary to establish the business’. By 2010, the presence of franchises was evident in approximately 75% of all countries in the world (Truitt 2006). Subsequently, franchises have significantly contributed to the economic growth of the global econom y by stimulating the retail sector, creation of employment, and contribution to country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Stanworth, Stanworth, Watson, Purdy, Heleas 2004). Therefore, franchising is a proven business concept. Many investors are of the opinion that adopting the franchise format can improve the effectiveness with which an organisation maximises its profit as opposed to independent start-ups. The concept of franchising business has experienced significant challenges in different parts of the world. For example, the number of franchises declined from 1100 to 1025 during the period ranging between 2008 and 2010 (Buchan 2013). Despite this aspect, a report by the Franchise Council of Australia indicates that the franchise format has played a remarkable role in the growth of small businesses in the country (Buchan 2013). Problem statement Despite the contribution of franchising in promoting businesses’ capability to achieve high profitability, this business fo rmat has come under intense criticism due to its standardisation concept. Previous franchising literature has cited the level of autonomy and independence associated with franchising as major concerns. Tuunanen and Hyrsky (2001) argue that standardisation is one of the key components of franchising. This assertion means that business format franchising is based on the model of ‘cloning’, whereby a business deals with standardised products and services. Therefore, the products are sold under similar trademark or trade name.Advertising Looking for proposal on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Under the concept of standardisation, the franchisee is required to adhere to the operational parameters set by the franchisor (Hoy Stanworth 2014). Some of the standards include trademark, suppliers of inputs, promotion methods, the nature of the product, and the trademarks to be adopted. Consequently, acco rding to Fock (2001, p.173), the ‘franchisees are not given the opportunity to incorporate their own initiative in the operation of the franchise’. For example, the franchisor cannot make decision on diverse operating procedures such as operating hours, pricing, hiring of employees, and business location. Failure to comply with the contractual agreement is a major source of conflict between the franchisee and the franchisor. For example, the contract may require the franchisee to pay the franchisor based on sales revenue. This aspect might pose a challenge to the franchisees in their quest to maximise their profits, especially if the geographical area in which they operate is characterised by minimal growth. Such geographical limitations may pressurize franchisee to diverge from the set operational standards. Cox and Masson (2007, p.1054) assert that geographical dispersion ‘exposes the chain to varied local market conditions that require adaptation to maximise pe rformance’. Adopting uniform operating procedures and standards such as franchising is an ineffective strategy in some geographical locations in businesses’ effort to maximise their sales revenue and net income. Subsequently, franchising is experiencing a challenge arising from the franchisors’ demand to comply with the concept of standardisation and the franchisees need to adapt their business operations in accordance with the geographical market needs (Levy Weitz 2007). Rationale of the study Franchising has gained significance in the global business environment. Subsequently, most entrepreneurs and practising managers are inclining towards integrating the concept of franchising in their strategic management processes. The prominence of the franchising business format has arisen from the recognition of its role in stimulating business growth.Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on Geographical Pressures to Deviate from Franchise Formats spe cifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, entrepreneurs and business managers have an obligation to ensure that firms achieve their profit maximisation. This goal can only be achieved if the most effective business format is adopted. However, the concept of franchising has some gaps emanating from its overemphasis of the concept of standardisation as its cornerstone. Research aims and objectives The study aims at developing a comprehensive understanding on the importance of understanding the standardisation and adaptation concepts of franchising. In a bid to achieve this aim, the researcher will follow a number of objectives, which include To assess how geographical factors affect the implementation of franchising business format. To analyse the extent to which franchisors allow franchisees to adapt to the prevailing environmental conditions. To evaluate the franchisees integrate the concept of adaptation in their effort to carry out th e franchising system. Research questions A number of research questions based on the research objectives will guide the study. The research questions are outlined below. What is the impact of geographical factors affecting the implementation of franchising business format? To what degree do franchisors allow franchisees to adapt their businesses to the prevailing environmental conditions? How does a franchisee integrate the concept of adaptation in their effort to establish the franchising system? Significance of the study This study will be of great significance to practising managers and academicians. For example, the study will provide business managers and entrepreneurs with insight on the challenges associated with the standardisation concept of franchising especially in business operating in diverse geographical areas. Subsequently, business managers will be in a position to make a decision on whether to adopt standardisation or adaptation in their effort to achieve profit maximisation. Furthermore, the study will enable academicians to appreciate the gap associated with the concept of franchising in their review of the subject. Research hypothesis This study will aim at verifying the null hypothesis (H0) or refuting the alternate (H1) hypothesis, which include Null hypothesis H0 – Geographical pressures have a significant impact on franchisees decision to deviate from the standardisation concept of franchising and adapt to the prevailing environmental conditions. Alternate hypothesis H1 – Geographical pressures do not have an impact on franchisees decision to deviate from standardisation and adapting to the prevailing environmental conditions. Literature review Franchising Entrepreneurs must make a decision on the legal structure that they will adopt in the course of establishing their business. Truitt (2006) argues that the format selected has significant tax, regulatory, legal, and business consequences. The choice of business forma t is determined by different factors such as capital requirements, liability risk involved, tax, and marketing requirements (Sorenson Sorensen 2001).Advertising Looking for proposal on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some business structures are characterised by high capital requirements, liability risk, and marketing requirements (Croonen Brand 2012). The main types of business format in much legislation include partnerships, sole proprietorships, limited liability companies, and franchises. Buchan (2013, p.3) emphasises that franchising ‘has become a significant part of the global commercial landscape’. Components of franchising formats Dada (2013) asserts that the franchise business format is comprised of four main components, which include the nature of the product or service, format facilitators, system identifiers, and benefit communicators. Franchises specialise in offering customers unique products or service, which acts as its competitive niche. On the other hand, benefit communicators refer to the intangible benefits associated with the product or service being offered. Examples of such benefits include high level of professionalism in the service delivery process and rel iability. Format facilitators refer to the procedures and policies that should be followed by the franchisee, while system identifiers refer to the visual elements that associate a firm or product to a particular chain, for example trademarks, uniforms and architectural features (Yudoko 2012). Franchising; standardisation versus adaptation Cox (2002) argues that standardisation is the foundation of franchising due to its contribution in the franchisees and franchisors’ efforts to achieve its cost minimisation objective. For example, standardisation minimises the cost incurred in monitoring the franchisee. Moreover, standardisation allows businesses to develop and maintain a unique brand image amongst its customers (Michael 2002). Subsequently, an organisation nurtures a high degree of customer loyalty arising from trusting in the uniformity of the product’s quality across outlets in different locations. Therefore, standardisation in franchising enables entrepreneurs to sustain the unique customer experience. Longenecker (2012) asserts that the franchisees’ efforts to deviate from the set standards by adapting their own operational procedures may lead to erosion of the benefits associated with franchising, for example due to a decline in product quality and loss of the brand image (Rundh 2003). Furthermore, critics argue that adaptation in franchising format may influence the franchisees’ ability to innovate adversely (Chary 2009). This assertion arises from the view that the franchisee might not have sufficient knowledge to innovate the product or service offered in order to fit the geographical needs (Stanworth, Healeas Purdy 2002). Cox and Masson (2007, p.1056) argue that adapting ‘to local conditions reduces the potential for cross-fertilisation of ideas for identifying and implementing new offerings’. Despite the significance of standardisation, Megan (2010) argues that franchises operate in diverse geographical ar eas, which are characterised by different factors such as intensity of competition, customer tastes, and preferences. Therefore, the effectiveness of standardisation amongst franchisees operating in geographically diverse area is limited. Michael (2000) argues that franchisees have substantial knowledge of their local geographical market compared to the franchisor. Consequently, the likelihood of succeeding in their innovation effort is high (Michael 2003). Despite their commitment to standardisation, franchisors depend on the market knowledge and information gathered by franchisees in undertaking product or system innovation (Ryans, Grittith While 2003). However, the need to maintain a strong brand image restricts franchisees from adapting their operations to the local market situation (Pizanti Lerner 2003). From the above review, a significant gap needs to be addressed on whether franchisors should give franchisees the opportunity to deviate from the set operational standards an d procedures and adapting their operations to the prevailing market situations. Through adaptation, there is a high probability of franchising business formats gaining better significance compared to the prevailing situation. Methodology Research design The purpose of this study is to explore the decision of franchisees to incorporate the standardisation versus the adaptation strategies in their operation. The study will adopt qualitative research design. The decision to adopt this research design is informed by the exploratory nature of the study. Moreover, qualitative research design will provide the researcher with an opportunity to gather substantial amount of data to aid in making extensive and conclusive research findings. Maxwell (2005) further asserts that qualitative research design is a multi-method research strategy, which is interpretive in nature. Subsequently, the study will be of great significance to the target audience. Data collection The researcher will source dat a from secondary sources. The researcher will review previous studies and literature on standardisation and adaptation amongst franchises. Some of the main secondary sources of data that the researcher will consider include reports peer-reviewed journals and other literature. Numerous studies on franchising have been conducted previously. Therefore, the use of secondary sources will provide the researcher with an opportunity to gather substantial data. However, the researcher will ensure that the secondary data selected is from credible sources. This move will improve the reliability of the data collected. Data analysis and presentation The data gathered will be analysed using Microsoft Excel, which will enable the researcher to condense the voluminous data collected. Creswell (2003) asserts that qualitative research design enables a researcher to gather diverse data. Evaluating the data collected can overwhelm the researcher if it is not condensed effectively. By using Microsoft Ex cel, the researcher will be in a position to condense the data successfully by incorporating tables, graphs, range, and graphs. Subsequently, the researcher will assess different aspects associated with the subject under investigation. Furthermore, using Microsoft Excel will provide the researcher with an opportunity to present the data effectively using graphs. Subsequently, the target audience will be in a position to understand the research findings easily. Reference List Buchan, J 2013, Franchisees as consumers; benchmarks, perspectives and  consequences, Springer, New York. Chary, S 2009, Production and operations management, Tata McGraw, New Delhi. Cox, J 2002, Geographical dimensions of business format franchising, University of Southampton, Southampton. Cox, J Masson, C 2007, ‘Standardisation versus adaptation; geographical pressures to deviate from franchise formats’, The Service Industries Journal, vol. 27 no. 8, pp. 1053-1072. Creswell, J 2003, Research de sign: qualitative, quantitative and mixed method  Approaches, Sage Publications, New York. Croonen, E Brand, M 2012, ‘Antecedents of franchisee responses to franchisor initiated strategic change’, International Small Business Journal, vol. 69 no. 172, pp.114-126. Dada, O 2013, ‘Entrepreneurial organisation and the franchise system; Organisational antecedents and performance outcomes’, European Journal of  Marketing, vol. 47 no. 5, pp. 790-812. Fock, H 2001, ‘Retail outlet location decision-maker: franchisor or franchisee’, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, vol. 19 no. 3, pp. 171-178. Hoy, F Stanworth, J 2014, Franchising; an international perspective, Routledge, New York. Levy, M Weitz, B 2007, Retailing management, McGraw-Hill, New York. Longenecker, J 2012, Small business management; launching and growing entrepreneurial ventures, Cengage Learning, Mason. Maxwell, J 2005, Qualitative research design: an interactive approach, Sage Pu blication, New Jersey. Megan, T 2010, ‘A framework for implementing retail franchises internationally’,  Marketing Intelligence Planning, vol. 28 no. 6, pp. 689-705. Michael, S 2000, ‘Investments to create bargaining power: the case of franchising’,  Strategic Management Journal, vol.21, pp. 497-514. Michael, S 2002, ‘Can a franchise chain coordinate’, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 17, pp. 325-341. Michael, S 2003, ‘First mover advantage through franchising’, Journal of Business  Venturing, vol.18, pp. 61-80. Pizanti, I Lerner, M 2003, ‘Examining control and autonomy in the franchisor franchisee relationship’, International Small Business Journal, vol. 21 no. 2, pp.131- 38. Rundh, B 2003, ‘Rethinking the international marketing strategy; new dimensions in a competitive market,’ Marketing Intelligence Planning, vol. 21 no. 4, pp. 249-257. Ryans, J, Grittith, D While, D 2003, ‘Standardi sation versus adaptation of International marketing strategy; necessary conditions for advancements’,  International Marketing Review, vol. 20 no. 6, pp. 588-603. Sorenson, O Sorensen, J 2001, ‘Finding the right mix: franchising, organisational learning and chain performance’, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 22 no.16, pp. 713-724. Stanworth, J, Healeas, S Purdy, D 2002, ‘Intellectual capital acquisition and knowledge management – new perspectives on franchising as a small business growth strategy’, ISBA National Small Firms Policy and Research Conference  Proceedings, vol. 2 no.5, pp. 1507-1534. Stanworth, J, Stanworth, C, Watson, A, Purdy, D Heleas, S 2004, ‘Franchising as a small business growth strategy: a resource-based view of organisational development’, International Small Business Journal, vol. 22 no.3, pp. 539-559. Truitt, W 2006, The corporation, Greenwood Press, Westport. Tuunanen, M Hyrsky, K 2001, ‘En trepreneurial paradoxes in business format franchising: an empirical survey of Finnish franchisees’, International Small Business  Journal, vol. 19 no. 4, pp. 47-62. Yudoko, G 2012, Sustainable operations strategy; a conceptual framework, ICTOM, Bandung. This proposal on Geographical Pressures to Deviate from Franchise Formats was written and submitted by user Cailyn Lee to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Picture of a House

Picture of a House It is said that every family has skeletons in the cupboard. If only old houses could speak, they would tell a lot of fascinating stories about bad and good times of their inhabitants. At first glance, an old house in the picture may seem to be a mere building consisting of walls, windows and doors, but its atmosphere and every its part would mean a lot for several generations that were born and grew up in it.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Picture of a House specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A paved path leading to the terrace steps looks so inviting that it is hard to resist the temptation and enter the building. Stepping on this winding trail, a guest would inevitably think of those people who had walked this path millions of times day by day in the past. It is possible that these were small children who ran skipping along and perhaps even fell after stumbling over one of the stones on the path. These could also be elderly people who went slowly because it was already difficult for them to walk. Young people could walk this path in a hurry from and to work without even noticing beauty of the house. With all these thoughts in mind, a guest would find himself/herself on a desert terrace. Knocking on the door, the stranger would imagine children playing games on this terrace and an elderly man sitting in a rocky chair. However, now there are no lights in the window and the terrace is desert. Nobody would open, and it seems that now only memories and family secrets live in this house. Not able to enter the house, a stranger would stay outside and walk in the garden. It is autumn, and the bare trees share the mood and loneliness of the house. However, there are no leaves on the lawn, and it means that somebody has collected them. Someone who is now invisible has gathered the autumn leaves and neatly cut the lawn. The presence of invisible but caring owners surround the house with atmosphere of mys tery. The red tiling on the roof of the house and a gabled tower make the building look like a castle from a fairy tale. There is a small chimney on the roof, and obviously small children growing up in this house were waiting for Santa Claus to come through it every Christmas Eve. Children grew up and do not believe in miracles anymore, but a small chimney remains as a commemoration of those old good times. The large windows of the house are similar to somebody’s curious eyes and connect the inhabitants of the building with the surrounding world. It is obvious that there are even more windows in this house than it is necessary for lighting the rooms in a proper way. Most rooms of the house have two or even more windows which demonstrate the openness of the inhabitants and make the building look even more inviting. It is possible that previously the house was more hospitable than on this autumn morning and guests crowded on its small terrace and in its brightly-lit rooms. Howe ver, now the house looks desert and sleeps, hiding all its secrets behind thick curtains on the windows.Advertising Looking for essay on art? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Looking at the exterior of the house in the picture, strangers can only make guesses concerning the lives of its inhabitants and the true meaning of the elements of the building. A winding path, bare trees in the garden and large windows would seem only the elements of the construction to a stranger, but would tell much more to people who have spent at least a part of their lives in this house.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Management Strategies and Practices Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Management Strategies and Practices - Essay Example (Montana.P and B. Charnov. 2000) Management is a discipline that has gained popularity over the years. Today people study and pursue degrees in managing the organization, the processes and most definitely people. It is true that employees are the asset of an organization. They are those who make the organization and lie at the foundation of it. Therefore, it is important that they be treated well, in such a way so that their skills and potential is polished. The right attitude in prospective employees is very important in order that employees give their 100% to the organization. The right attitude means a positive inclination towards one’s profession and a personality that matches the requirement of that profession. The theory lies on the premise that there must be something relevant in people that they can take up a particular profession. Just like you cannot make someone without hands, drive, it is therefore impossible to make the quietest girl in the class into a cheerleader. Hence a drive, something inborn is necessary to take up a particular profession. Therefore one must understand that while degrees, medals, reports and skills count; there’s something else which distinguishes a winner from a loser. There are also certain characteristics that organizations look for in their desired candidate in keeping with the culture of the company. For example; the Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island looks for doctors who are calm, composed, confident, energetic and compassionate. Even though companies are still impressed by a 4.0 gpa or a degree from Harvard University; it is not the only ingredient which makes successful employees who contribute positively to the wellbeing of the organiza tion. (Kreitner.R., 2000) UPS has also been hiring employees based on their performance on attitude and behaviourial tests. It therefore considers that the right temperament for a job is

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Educational Service Journal Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Educational Service Journal - Assignment Example The Floor was dusty, and the walls were made of mud. In my class, I did not have students with a special need but nearly all the students were communicating in the mother tongue. The school students had a unique culture of punishing students, for example, if a student made noise in class; he was to carry a pan having all the utensils in and run all around the field five times. This culture did not value all students, and I was of a different race I would not be comfortable in the school. During classes and on playgrounds, students divided themselves basing on their cultures. Yes, in peers there was a bigger discrimination rate, and if anything that will bring them is done then they will interact. The Parent Teacher Association (PTA) meeting are held, and parents are involved and shown how their children are stuck in cultural values. The school at large struggles with the eradication of culture by mingling the students in class and within the playgrounds among the varying cultural disposition. This attempt by the school has helped much because there was a smaller cultural difference in the whole school. In any normal class, boys get boredom faster they seem not to corporate anymore compared to their colleagues; girls. When it reaches that point, I let them go and play for some minutes. Girls do cooperate actively with each fully. Girls are hyperactive, and whenever any question is asked, they are the first to answer and when given an assignment they finish in time. Boys and girls do not play together; they stay separate and play separately. With time, this trend will change when they have reached certain age levels. Equality is a uniform factor, so when dealing with either boys or girls, dealing with them in the same discipline should apply to treatment, treat them equally without any favor. The school culture and the official curriculum do not promote cultural awareness.  

Monday, January 27, 2020

Effectiveness of Exogenous Melatonin in Insomnia

Effectiveness of Exogenous Melatonin in Insomnia WOO YUN KIN CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Research Background Sleep is not always a luxury. Insomnia is defined as a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or stay asleep as long as desired (Roth T. 2007). It is estimated that up to 34% of adults in the United States and 37% in Europe have some forms of insomnia (Leger D. 2005). Insomnia can be classified to mild, moderate and severe according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorder (ICSD). Melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) is a lipid soluble hormone secreted by the pineal gland during hours of darkness. Melatonin has several physiological functions including regulation of the circadian rhythms, modulation of seasonal change and a powerful antioxidant (Gitto et al. 2013). With age, it has been shown that the 24hour melatonin secretion is significantly reduced thus affecting the normal circadian cycle (Iguchi et al. 1982). At present, insomnia is typically treated symptomatically, often with benzodiazepine or antidepressants. However chronic insomnia requires long term treatment which may cause significant side effects and unwanted drug-drug interaction. Approximately 29-61% of older adults with insomnia complaints have preexisting sleep apnea (Krakow et al. 2001). With the combination of insomnia and sleep apnea, sedative-hypnotic treatments may worsen the sleep apnea (Mendelson et al. 1981). Exogenous melatonin is a chronobiotic drug with some hypnotic properties (Zhdanova et al. 1997), it has become of the most frequently non-prescribed sleep aid due to its role in regulating and promoting sleep (Wagner et al. 1998). some studies have shown that supplemental melatonin can increase sleep propensity, although it may not be as effective as prescribed sleep medication (Zhdanova I. 2005). Problem Statement Sleep adequacy includes, quality, timing and also duration. It has been estimated that the direct health cost of sleep disorder amounts to $1144 million Australian dollars in 2001 (NHS Aus. 2001), and 7.6% of the total motor vehicle accidents(MVA) in 2004 are indirectly caused by sleep disorders amounting to $808million net health costs. Studies have been done to show the benefits of exogenous melatonin for sleep disorders on individuals with intellectual disabilities and adolescence however very little has been done to show its effectiveness on the general population. Malaysia, has one of the highest rate of MVA in the world where according to Malaysian Institute of Road Safety (MIROS), from 1997 to 2007, there has been an increase of 59% of MVA and the main reason identified was driving fatigue due to awkward working hours/shift works (Kee et al. 2010). Availability of exogenous in Malaysia is scarce and it is not fully understood. Research Question How effective is exogenous melatonin in treating insomnia in general population? How safe is exogenous melatonin? Research Objective To review efficacy of exogenous melatonin in treating insomnia To access the safety of exogenous melatonin Significance of Research Data from available clinical trials and studies done on the efficacy of exogenous melatonin in insomnia will be compiled and compared to enable a more comprehensive and easily accessible result database. With the comprehensive database, clinicians will have a better understanding on the efficacy of MSCs and the best treatment option for the patient, thus improving patients quality of life. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INSOMNIA Insomnia is often defined by the presence of an individual’s report of difficulty with sleep (Roth T 2007). The criteria often used in diagnosing insomnia includes i)difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep or nonrestorative sleep, ii) this opportunity is present despite adequate opportunity and circumstance to sleep, iii) this impairment in sleep is associated with daytime impairment or distress and iv) this sleep difficulty occurs at least 3 times per week and has been a problem for the past 1 month (Roth T 2007). The pathophysiology of insomnia can be due to the disorder of the hyper-arousal state throughout the whole day which causes alertness during the day and difficulty in falling or maintaining sleep (Stepanski E, 1988). A cross sectional study done on 156 US air force personal found that 40% suffered from sleep disorder and 75% reported diminished sleep quality while deployed overseas (Peterson AL, 2008). A study done in 2013 (Lentino et al, 2013) showed that 25% of the 14148 army and national guard personal reported to be poor sleepers thus affecting the quality of sleep and the quality of service. 2.2 CURRENT TREATMENT FOR INSOMNIA Currently the medications used for treating insomnias and other sleep disorders includes benzodiazepine receptor agonist (eg. Zolpidem, zipoclone) which are only limited to short term use (4 weeks) (Sanofi Aventis, 2007). The medication large affects the brain through the GABA receptors and long term use has been associated with memory and balance impairment, rebound imsomnia, withdrawal symptoms and abuse potential (Rush CR, 1999). Recent short termed studies have shown that discontinuation of the benzodiazepines lead to disruption of the sleep architecture and also increases sleep latency which makes withdrawing from treatment difficult (Mann K, 1996). 2.3 MELATONIN Melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) is a lipid soluble hormone that is shown to be involved with the sleep physiology (Dijk D-J, 1997).it is also regulates the modulation of season change, in reproduction, antioxidant, oncostatic, anti inflammatory and anti-convulsant effect (Gitto E, 2013). Melatonin is mostly produced in the pineal gland in the brain during the hours of darkness and is involved in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle (circadian cycle).the circadian process is maintained by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) which contains high number of melatonin receptors. During daytime, the SCN produces an arousal signal that maintains the wakefulness and prevents sleep drive however in darkness, there is a feedback loop which causes the release of melatonin which feeds back and inhibits the SCN (Geert et al, 2009) It has been documented that melatonin decreases with age especially in post menopausal women (Okatani Y, 2000). Other than to promote sleep, melatonin also show s sedative and anti-excitory effects (Hardeland R, 2008). 2.4 EXOGENOUS MELATONIN Exogenous melatonin has become one of the most frequently prescribed over the counter drug for those looking for non-prescription sleep medication (Wagner J, 1998). The exogenous melatonin is marketed to help promote quality sleep, helps in jet lag, or to regulate the circadian cycle due to jet lag or shift work due to its regulator role in the internal timing of biological rhythm. Some studies have shown that exogenous melatonin can help increase the sleep propensity although it may not be as effective as prescribed sleep medications (Zhdanova I, 2005). Studies have also been done regarding the use of exogenous melatonin in the treatment of sleep problems in individuals with sleep disability (Turk 2003) however there are still doubts on the efficacy of exogenous melatonin usage for the general public. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design This research was based on the PICOS guidelines : Population (P): All types of insomnia patients Intervention (I): Exogenous melatonin Comparitor (C): Insomnia patients on treatment with exogenous melatonin compared with other treatment by questionnaires Outcome (O): Efficacy and safety of treatment Study design (S): Randomized Controlled trials (RCT), Surveys 3.2 Database Literature search was done on electronic articles/ journals in Central, PubMed and Google Scholar. 3.3 Keywords Key words used to search articles with MESH terms were: Insomnia Exogenous melatonin 3.4 Quality Assessment Quality assessment of the paper was done using Jadad scoring for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for case-control and cohort studies. 1.Jaded score assesses the quality of published clinical trials based on methods relevant to random assignment, double blinding and the flow of patients. There are 7 criteria evaluated, whereby 1 point is given if the criteria is met and the last 2 crietria carries a negative mark. Range of score is from 0 (bad) to 5 (good) (Jadad et al. 1996). i. Was the study described as randomized (this include words such as randomly, random, and randomization)? [+1 point] ii. Was the method used to generate the sequence of randomization described and appropriate (table of random numbers, computer generated etc)? [+1 point] iii. Was the study described as double blind? [+1 point] iv. Was the method of double blinding described and appropriate (identical placebo, active placebo, dummy, etc)? [+1 point] v. Was there a description of withdrawals and dropouts? [+1point] vi. Deduct one point if the method used to generate the sequence of randomization was described and it was inappropriate (patients were allocated alternately, or according to date of birth, hospital number, etc)? vii. Deduct one point if the study was described as double blind but the method of blinding was inappropriate (eg. comparison of table vs. injection with no double dummy) 2. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) is developed to assess the quality of the non-randomized studies with its design, content and ease of use directed to the purpose of incorporating the quality assessments in the interpretation of the results. A ‘star system’ is developed to judge on 3 broad perspectives (Wells et al. 2014): i. The selection of the study groups ii. The comparability of the groups The ascertainment of either the exposure or outcome of interest for case-control or cohort studies respectively 3.5 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Inclusion criteria Studies included in this review were chosen according to the flowing criteria : i. Papers published in English language (2010-2015) ii. All study designs were included to maximize the data collection Study subjects includes all types of insomnia patients Exclusion criteria Studies that were done in foreign language and animal studies were excluded in this review 3.6 Ethical Clearance The ethical committee of UCSI was notified regarding this thesis write-up 3.7 GAANT Chart 3.8 Milestone Proposal presentation: 27.02.2015 Submission: 31.03.2015 Data analysis complete: 30.05.2015 Thesis submission: 15.07.2015 REFERENCES 1. CATHERINE CORNU, L. R., FLORENCE NOEL-BARON, ALAIN NICOLAS, NATHALIE FEUGIER-FAVIER, PASCAL ROY, BRUNO CLAUSTRAT, M. S.-E. A. B. K. 2010. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 10. 2. SZESEEN KEE, S. B. M. T., YONGMENG GOH 2010. Driving Fatigue and Performance among Occupational Drivers in Simulated Prolonged Driving. Global Journal of Health Science, 2. 3. REBECCA B COSTELLO, C. V. L., COURTNEY C BOYD, MEGHAN L O’CONNELL, CINDY C CRAWFORD, DEUSTER, M. L. S. A. P. A. 2014. The effectiveness of melatonin for promoting healthy sleep: a rapid evidence assessment of the literature. Nutrition Journal, 13. 4. DAVID R HILLMAN, M., FRCPE, FANZCA; ANITA SCOTT MURPHY, BEC; RAL ANTIC, MB, FRACP; LYNNE PEZZULLO, BEC 2006. The Economic Cost of Sleep Disorders. Sleep, 29. 5. GEERT MAYER, M. S. W.-W., MD, PHD; BARBARA ROTH-SCHECHTER, PHD; REINER LEHMANN, MD; CORINNE STANER, MD; MARKKU PARTINEN, MD, PHD 2009. Efficacy and Safety of 6-Month Nightly Ramelteon Administration in Adults with Chronic Primary Insomnia. Sleep, 32. 6. FRANK A.J.L. SCHEER, P. C. J. M., PHD; JOANNA I. GARCIA, BA; CAROLINA SMALES, BSC; ERIN E. KELLY, MSC; JENNY MARKS, MPH; ATUL MALHOTRA, M. S. A. S., PHD 2012. Repeated Melatonin Supplementation Improves Sleep in Hypertensive Patients Treated with Beta-Blockers: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Sleep, 35. 7. JONATHAN J. BASKETT, J. B. B., PHILIP C. WOOD, JOHN R. DUNCAN,MEGAN J. PLEDGER, JUDIE ENGLISH, JOSEPHINE ARENDT 2003. Does melatonin improve sleep in older people? A randomised crossover trial. Age and Aging, 32, 164-170. 8. P GRINGRAS, C. G., A P JONES , L WIGGS , P R WILLIAMSON , A SUTCLIFFE , P MONTGOMERY, W P WHITEHOUSE , I CHOONARA, A EDMOND, R APPLETON 2012. Melatonin for sleep problems in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: randomised doubl emasked placebo controlled trial. BMJ, 354. 9. LIIRA J, V. J., COSTA G, DRISCOLL TR, SALLINEN M, ISOTALO LK, RUOTSALAINEN JH 2014. Pharmacological interventions for sleepiness and sleep disturbances caused by shift work (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration. 10. VENKATARAMANUJAM SRINIVASAN, D. D. B., TIMO PARTONEN,RAHIMAH ZAKARIA,ZAHIRUDDIN OTHMAN 2014. The use of melatonin for treating sleep disorders in patients with Parkinson’s disease. ChronoPhysiology and Therapy, 51-57. 11. THOMAS ROTH 2007. Insomnia: Definition, Prevalence, Etiology, and Consequences. Supplement, 3 12. LUCIA MARSEGLIA, G. D. A., SARA MANTI, SALVATORE AVERSA , TERESA ARRIGO, RUSSEL J. REITER, ELOISA GITTO 2015. Analgesic, Anxiolytic and Anaesthetic Effects of Melatonin: New Potential Uses in Pediatrics. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 1209-1220. 13. SCHWAB, N. S. G. P. G. I. G. E. A.-S. E. M. R. 2010. Effectiveness of Ramelteon for Insomnia Symptoms in Older Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Randomized Placebo- Controlled Pilot Study. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 6 14. ROSEANNE DEFRONZO DOBKIN, M. M., KARINA L. BIENFAIT, LESLEY A. ALLEN, HUMBERTO MARIN, AND MICHAEL A. GARA 2009. Ramelteon for the treatment of insomnia in menopausal women. Menopause Int., 15, 13-18. 15. JAMIE M. ZEITZER, B. K., DOUG OTA, B. JENNY KIRATLI 2014. Randomized controlled trial of pharmacological replacement of melatonin for sleep disruption in individuals with tetraplegia. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 37. 16. GIULIANA GALLI-CARMINATIA, N. D., GILLES BERTSCHY 2009. Melatonin in the treatment of chronic sleep disorders in adults with autism: a retrospective study. S W i S S M e d W k ly, 139, 293-296.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Alcoholism among Victorians Essay -- Victorian Era

Alcoholism among Victorians Wrayburn: â€Å"It will be necessary, I think, to wind up Mr. Dolls, before anything to any mortal purpose can be got out of him. Brandy, Mr. Dolls, or - ?† Mr. Dolls: â€Å"Threepenn’orth Rum.† --Our Mutual Friend by Charles Dickens Throughout Victorian society â€Å"gin was the preferred spirit of the lower class, while wine and brandy were imbibed by the more comfortable citizenry† (Alcoholic Beverages 12). During the nineteenth century, the Victorians had high expectations of their class system to make sure the classes were distinct and properly represented. They â€Å"valued controlled, propitious behavior† and would tolerate nothing less (Harding Victorians and Alcohol). There was a â€Å"cultural value placed on teetotaling,† total abstinence from alcoholic drinks, but despite this value â€Å"alcohol consumption became a popular pastime† (Harding Victorians and Alcohol). Behavior such as drunkenness was strongly disapproved of because of its association with the lower class. Alcoholism: Representation of the Working Class It was widely known that â€Å"drunkenness, and the related loss of self-control, was associated with the lower classes† and therefore had negative connotations (Harding Victorians and Alcohol). Spirits, a popular hard liquor, â€Å"had become the everyday drink for less wealthy people† and â€Å"laborers commonly used spirits to flee from their desolate everyday lives† (Harding Victorians and Alcohol). The awful working and living conditions of the working class contributed to their â€Å"hard, controlled, and monotonous life, [leading] to excessive drinking of hard liquor† (Harding Victorians and Alcohol). This excessive drinking would sometimes result in public intoxication which was â€Å"regarded as anti-s... ...ss, Inc. 1996. 12. Distad, Merrill N. â€Å"Food and Diet.† Victorian Britain: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. 1988. 304-307. Garwood, John. â€Å"Religious and moral Character of the Pensioners, and Provisions made for their Instruction.† Social Investigation/Journalism – The Million-Peopled City. (1853): 94-96. 11 Mar. 2005 Harding, Stephen. â€Å"Alcohol.† Victorians’ Secrets. â€Å"Absinthe and Victorians.† Victorians’ Secrets. 2000. University of Texas at Arlington. 24 Feb. 2005. Kent, Christopher A. â€Å"Drink.† Twentieth-Century Britain: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1995. 239-240. Murdock, Catherine Gilbert. Domesticating Drink: Women, Men, and Alcohol in America, 1870-1940 . Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Healing Hospital

Healing hospital paradigm is centered on the removal of stress and other health risks for the patients and their families in the hospital environment. Healing hospital paradigm is important because treating a patient’s illness is not the only intrinsic component when they are admitted to the hospital. A good example for this is stress. Stress can be brought about due to many things when a patient is in the hospital, for example painful treatments, financial problems due to being admitted, loss of social life etc.Reducing these sort of stressors may ensure that the patient’s wellbeing is being maintained and the comprehensive care Minimization of these stressors ensures that the patient’s well-being is maintained while the comprehensive care part of the treatment makes certain that the patient’s recovery process is done without breaking confidentiality. The healing hospital paradigm can also be looked as healing the whole patient rather than just curing the ailment (Young & Koopsen, 2006).According to Dr. Milstein, paradigm doesn’t only focus on healing the physical body but â€Å"it aims to enhance the overall well being by addressing the patient’s and their families’ cognitive, emotional and spiritual concerns† (Milstein, 2005). This paper will describe healing hospital paradigm, its impact on the process of care giving and its components expanding on it relationship with spirituality. Components of Healing HospitalBased on the paradigm of healing hospital, Caring for a patient is not limited to only medical interventions and medication but it also includes how the healthcare provider engages the patients and their families to the process of treatment. This theory is based on the notion that both spiritual and emotional wellbeing applies to physical wellbeing. The healing hospital comprise of three major components. The first component is the culture of radical loving care. This may include the kind of ca re the patient receives and the type of conditions he/she is exposed to in the hospital.This component focuses on making the patient comfortable and preparing the patient psychologically for the treatment they would receive. Caregivers most have compassion to meet the spiritual and emotional needs of a patient and not only their physical needs. They most be able to demonstrate loving care and show the patients that they are willing to go the extra mile for them. Being compassionate and showing love can help reduce the stress for the patients and their families, healthcare provides bring hope. The next component is the healing physical environment.The physical environment in which a patient is being treated is also very crucial in the treatment process (Samueli, 2010). Hospitals should be free of stressful disturbances for the patient and their families. This kind of disturbances may include dull settings, noise and disorganization. A good healing physical environment must be well or ganized and constructed. Evidence has shown that rest is an important part of a patient’s healing process, but many hospitals are noisy with pagers beeping here and there and lots of people talking along the hallways.A good healing physical environment should address these kinds of challenges. Other things such as lighting and temperature must be well regulated to keep the patient as comfortable as possible. The final component of healing hospital is the integration of technology with work design. Technology is intertwined into the healthcare field to help the healthcare team help their patients recover in a good environment. Technology allows the staff members to work efficiently and to work in a manner that maximizes the comfort of the patients.In a good healing environment, patients get more sleep which helps with their healing. Staff members are giving technological equipments such as cordless phones, vibrating pagers and dynamaps for blood pressure, and they are educated to use them efficiently to promote healing in a noise-free environment. These technological advancements help to create stress-free environment for the patients and helps reduce medical errors. The healing hospitals also use technology to provide satisfaction, security, decreased cost and privacy for the patients and their families.These are crucial in the psychological needs of the patient. Challenges of Creating a Healing Environment There are various challenges involved in implementing a good healing hospital environment. First and foremost, the advancement of technology (e. g. more tubes and more wires) has complicated healthcare and is dominating in that healthcare providers are forgetting the original essentials of healing such as the compassion and the loving care. If the balance between technology and compassion can bee implemented, the results of patient satisfaction will increase.Another challenge with technology advancement also focuses on the profits rather the compassi onate care of the patient. The next challenge is that there are a lot of similarities between prisons and hospitals. Patients’ clothing’s are replaced by gowns, their names with barcodes and identification numbers, there is no longer any intimacy and they share their living space with strangers. Even restriction in visiting hours can make an individual feel like a prisoner. This is all due to that fact that healthcare providers are suppose to their tasks with robotic precision.According to Chapman, the hospital system is a â€Å"bureaucracy† and it is â€Å"an organization that acts as machines and are difficult to work with† (Chapman, 2010). Another challenge is that some healthcare providers or even family members and patients could be cynics. Cynicism is damaging to the care of patients. Healthcare providers should not be skeptic to the fact that love is a vital part of a patient’s recovery. Finally, leadership is an important aspect of healing hospital paradigm. The leaders in a healthcare setting have the responsibility to make sure love and compassion is at the top of the list in their plan to care for a patient.Biblical Passage that Supports the Concept of Healing Hospital In psalm 107 verses 17-22, the message version, David wrote â€Å"then you called out to God in you desperate condition; he got you out in the nick of time†. Here he describes how God heals the sick when they call on him. The sick in this passage have faith and are not cynics or skeptics which is and important part of healing. David explained the reality, living a bad life could get you sick and having faith that you would get better can heal you. It’s all about the positivity. David went on saying â€Å"So thank God for his marvelous love, for his miracle mercy to the children he loves†.This goes on to show that God’s love brings healing. This passage supports the paradigm of healing hospital because it has to do with hea ling the overall person and God does that too. The healing hospital is gaining more popularity now because there are a lot of benefits to it. This care system helps to enhance the overall wellbeing of the patient and their relatives and not only their physical body. This paradigm focuses on compassionate care that helps patient with stress and coping mechanisms through spirituality. This will help the community at large and bring it solace and hope. ReferencesChapman, E. (2010). Radical loving care: building the healing hospital in America. Nashville, TN: Vaughn Printing. Milstein, J. (2005). A paradigm of integrative care: healing with curing throughout life, â€Å"being with† and â€Å"doing to†. Journal of Perinatology, 25, 563-568. doi: 10. 1038/sj. jp. 7211358 Samueli Institute (2010). Optimal Healing Environments. February 12, 2013. Retrieved from http://www. siib. org/news/280-SIIB/version/default/part/AttachmentData/data/OHE_final. pdf Young, C. , & Koopsen, C. (2006). Spirituality, health, and healing (1 ed. ). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Framing news on foreign countries - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 27 Words: 8055 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Framing news on foreign countries: Media Interests and Motivations. Analyzing 10 yrs of US and UK newspaper editorials on Venezuela. OUTLINE 1) INTRODUCTION Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Framing news on foreign countries" essay for you Create order 2) LITERATURE REVIEW   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   -On News Framing   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   3) RESEARCH QUESTIONS 4) VARIABLES- Dependent   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚     Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚     Ãƒâ€šÃ‚      Independent 5) RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 6) METHODOLOGY   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   -Method   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   -Population   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   -Sample   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   -Time Period   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   -Coding Units   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   -Coding Procedure   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   -Framing Variables   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   -Coder Reliability   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   -Coding sheet 7) BIBLIOGRAPHY 1)INTRODUCTION Media organizations are essential in international affairs in terms of their important role in providing information to the public.[3] The question has often been whether the Media frames news in the context of the national interest of the host country, for example. Whether they reflect official position without challenging them or rather influence national interest objectives by putting pressure on politicians. The Mediaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s interest and other motivating factors are essential for understanding how editorials for instance are framed. Lacking in the study of Media framing is the application to bilateral relations. This study would attempt to add that dimension to the numerous researches on the Media in international affairs. It would analyze editorials by four prominent newspapers in the United States and the United Kingdom on issues concerning Venezuela. The aim is to find the likely motivating factors when it comes to framing news on foreign countries For many countries the media represents an important window to the international world. Patched knowledge on foreign issues would be close to a reality without a source of information about what happens elsewhere in the world, made available by the media. In democratic countries in particular, the reliance on the media for foreign news might be as important as the quest for local news. Images of foreign countries, issues and happenings in a particular country abroad are likely to be influenced by the media to a much larger scale when impressions are created of a healthy or strained bi-lateral relations, for instance. Due to factors such as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"cultural assumptionsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"political beliefsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, it is believed that news carves out images and impressions of the world some of which are preferred over other images.[4] The media, both electronic and print are a major component of the democratic processes in several countries. The media has often been referred to, in many countries, as an important branch of the government with roles from functioning as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"the main political informantà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢[7] There has been several publications on issues of Media and Government relations by several authors. For instance, in the scope of international relations and communications, there have been books published on the issue of how the media works in or out of line with foreign policy or the national interest. The debate has been whether or not the media is likely to support the national interest of the country in which it operates in relation to other countries(as the theory of Manufacturing Consent depicts)[9]. Either option makes foreign events relevant to the media. On the whole the media is believed to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"reflect social consensusà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[15] There may be variations in the nature of the Media depending on the region or country of operation. A media in a democratic country may be freer than those in a non-democratic country so news coverage, media culture and ethics could vary. In this study, a section of the Media in two democratic countries would be analyzed in terms of their positions on issues in a third country(Venezuela). What would be of interest to this study, as mention earlier, would be the factors that would be most highlighted in the accounts of these editorials. It may bring about issues of objectivity and latent Media interests or the interests of the consumers of the news content. In the US for example, the Media is often said to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"domesticate foreign newsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. The themes represented in news in the US are those which often have some relevance to American interests.[17] Thus, how the media frames news is largely important for understanding the positions they yield to and their respo nse to certain foreign events. In issues of national interest and in relation to bilateral relations, it would be important to know how the media in different countries frame news on events in countries abroad. 2) LITERATURE REVIEW NEWS FRAMING Entman, (1993) suggests that the concept of framing could be studied as a feature of a political discourse or as an instrument applied by the Media in making news.[19] And by extension, Media analysis or news analysis would deserve a look at the concept of news framing. Framing is, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the process by which a communication source constructs and defines a social or political issue for its audienceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?.[23] Framing theory is also applicable to Media analysis. Media frames as explained   by Entman (1991: 7), are à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"attributes of news itselfà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[24] In a broad sense, frames   are regarded as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“persistent patterns of cognition, interpretation, and presentation, and as selection, emphasis, and exclusion, by which symbol handlers routinely organize discourse, whether verbal or visual.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?.[27] Tuchman showed how framing as a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"process theoryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ works. And that the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"routine proceduresà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ used by newsmakers, direct news frames in a particular way.   She argues that these procedures à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"continually help showcase certain places and ideas, while consistently closing off and blocking inquiry into othersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[29] Entman (1993: 52) helped refine the scope of the definition given to news framing. He established that by the definition of news frame, frames could be seen as a process that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"defines problems à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" determine what a causal agent is doing with what costs and benefits, usually measured in terms of common cultural values; diagnose causes à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" identify the forces creating the problem; make moral judgments à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" evaluate causal agents and their effects; and suggest remedies à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" offer and justify treatments for the problems and predict their likely effectsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[30] Entman, (1991:7) also showed that frames used by the media are often captured à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"in the keywords, metaphors, concepts, symbols and visual images in news narrativesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. He stresses the point that one way is which news framing works is through repetition which is important for Media news framing because à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"news narrativesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, usually dependent on frames, are meant to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"direct attention to certain ideas, while excluding certain other ideasà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[33] It has also been established that Framing à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"involves processes of inclusion and exclusion as well as emphasis.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢[38] Framing also has the ability to make consumers of news accept and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"adopt some symbolic themes and valuesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[39] While the process of selectively and emphasis is carried out by the newsmakers, those for whom a particular news is meant, are also likely to be à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"predisposed to understanding and interpreting information in a selective way.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Framing   has also been explained to be à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"the process of placing information into a context of preconscious symbolismà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. [43] The framing process employed by the Media is regarded as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"key to shaping both the publicà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s and decision-makers knowledge, image and understanding of the worldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[49]. Perhaps a perfect definition of the concept of framing in relation to the print media is the fact that, a frame is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"a central organizing idea or story line that provides meaning to an unfolding strip of events, weaving a connection among them. The frame suggests what the controversy is about and the essence of the issueà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢[53] One of the significant areas in relation to framing of news and Media positioning is Foreign Policy. Assessments of the response of the media to foreign issues is largely based on a critical analysis of how the media operates or how a particular section of the media churns out news or editorials, for example the position that major newspapers take on certain foreign issues. In a way how it sets the agenda for government or public reactions. Both agenda setting and framing have been identified in news framing literature as ways in which the media can influence policy making and public opinion.[57]   There has been some convergence on how framing analysis can be carried out, according to the literature. Two approaches of framing analysis has evolved over the years. The Inductive approach and the Deductive approach. The latter has been proven more scientific than the former. The Deductive approach organizes the framing analysis based on pre-outlined broader frames.[59] There has also been an attempt by some authors to group frames along certain distinctions. Frames could be grouped under à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"issue-specificà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ frames which deal with particular issues in detail and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"generic framesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ which cover broader themes found in different settings.[61] One issue raised by some authors on framing is how the Media treat sources. When elite sources to news are relied on by journalists for example, they may in a way be a channel for promoting the views and opinions of the political order or the elites to the larger audience[63] Most of the literature also agree that the location of a news story gives it much weight in terms of the perceived influence on the newspaperà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s readership and how important the issues are to them. It also demonstrates the importance the media attaches to that particular issue or event.[67] In all, Media scholars have studied Framing theory as either theories of Effects and   Process. By Framing as effects theory, media scholars have studied the influence that news frames have on   audiences while studies on framing as a process theory have addressed à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"how news content is created and modified in certain waysà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ considering the factors that influence the carving of news in a particular way. [68] . Although the framing of news is important to the coverage given to events and issues, there are other elements or factors that influence the framing of news in itself have to be identified.[72] This study would turn the spot light on the wide array of all the other factors that may help explain why news is framed in a particular way. As pointed out earlier, some literature on the Media have suggested that the sources that the Media relies go an extent to make the news themselves. In other words, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å" Organizations with more resources, or that have more credibility in the eyes of journalists, are more likely to become regular news sources, and thus shape which issues (agenda-setting) and which perspectives (frames) dominate the newsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[74] Some Media scholars are of the opinion that the ideal state of Media Objectivity is far fetched. Some are of the view that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"there is no fundamentally non-ideological, apolitical, non-partisan news gathering and reporting system. Since there may be dispute over objectivity and news without bias, the concept of framing becomes important to analyzing the frames used in making news.[77] While journalists may dispute these assertions, it is believed that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"news content is not an objective entity, independent of political, social, ideological or sociopsychological influencesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ than mere information.[80] As stated before, the Media often depicts the Governmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s position in respect to interests and issues especially in relation to other countries. There has been the suggestion that   the Mediaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s position is based on à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"national values, national interest and cultural valuesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ of their host countries.[82] The Media is likely to succumb to the views of governments because   the latterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s position on issues is seen as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“an overriding common good transcending the specific interests of parties, factions, and other entities smaller than the nation as a whole.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?[84]   The problem with the concept of framing is that it à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"lacks clear conceptual definitions and a comprehensive statement to guide researchà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[85] Yet these challenges would make it important for more research into factors that influence news framing. The extent to which consumers of news à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"perceive foreign leadersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in either a positive or negative light is dependent on how framing is carried out.[86] The latter point might be important to understand how the reading-public of the four sampled newspapers are likely to perceive the leadership in Venezuela. Most of the research done on news framing have largely gone in the way of foreign policy research. A few have looked at news framing in relation to another country with a lengthy time range while Media response and framing on various issues are measured and analyzed. The study hopes to add to the already existing research on news framing in this regard. 3) Proposed Research Questions Research Question 1 :What is the tone of coverage on Venezuela in U.S. and U.K. editorials? Do the two groups of newspapers differ in tone? Research Question 2: Which frames dominated in the overall coverage and was there a significant difference between the two countries in terms of the frames used? Research Question 3: Which issues dominated the overall coverage country-wise? Research Question 3: Do positions on issues covered reflect National Interest of the two countries? Research Question 4: Do these editorials rely on government sources in arriving at opinions and conclusions? Research Question 5: Which issues are most prominent in all the coverage? Research Question 6: Do the editorials lean towards a kind of political or economic ideology? 4) VARIABLES The variables for this study would be the following 1 Independent -Tone of coverage and framing in UK editorials -Tone of coverage and framing in US editorials -Most highlighted issues 2 Dependent -The interests of the UK(economic, political, other) -The   interests of the US (economic, political, other) -The ideology of the paper 5) Proposed Research Hypothesis 1 There is no difference in tone between the two groups of newspapers. 2 The level of interest given to highlighted issues between the two groups of newspapers will be the same? 3 Positioning and framing of news will depend on the interests of the host nation of the newspapers. 4 Positioning and framing of news will depend on the ideology of the host nation of the newspapers. 5 UK newspaper editorials are likely to be less critical of Venezuela because of better bi-   lateral relations. 6 US newspaper editorials are likely to be more critical of Venezuela because of worse bi-lateral relations. 6) METHODOLOGY Method The study on these editorials would be carried out using quantitative content analysis to assess qualitative data published by the four newspapers. Content analysis is defined as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"a research technique that involves measuring a content( in this case, news frames) in a random sampling of some form of communication( in this case, editorials). The basic assumption implicit in content analysis is that an investigation of messages and communication will allow some insight into the people who receive these messagesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢[87]. However the use of content analysis in this study would be to capture the frames used in the sampled editorials and what informs interests in issues and not what the consumers of such news perceive or how they react to these messages. One advantage of content analysis is that unlike other research methods where the researcher can easily influence the outcome of the research, it offers à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"mediated communicationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ to be rather studied rather than the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"behavior of peopleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ which may be difficult to analyze. Additionally it provides numbers and figures which can be quantified to secure likely viable assessments.[88] Admittedly, the use content analysis technique also brings to the fore issues concerning the representativeness of the samples used, the adequate definition of issues, difficulties with measuring units to be analyzed and coder reliability issues.[89] A conversion of coded values into quantitative statistical data would be made after the content analysis. Population The population of this study would be all editorials on Venezuela within the ten year period by high circulating newspapers in the US and the UK. The assumption is that editorials from newspapers with a relatively high number of circulations, may have been read by a significant number of people or may have reached a wider audience or a politically responsive section of the public. The study would not be concerned with gauging public reactions but in the frames used themselves. Yet high circulation newspapers offer a good basis for selection in the sample. Sample The type of sampling used in selecting editorials is Criterion Sampling .Editorials which will make up the sample   are those with references made to the words VENEZUELA and HUGO CHAVEZ and political and economic issues related to these terms. A retrieval of the editorials from the search engine LEXIS-NEXIS   has already been carried out using the following terms: VENEZUELA, HUGO CHAVEZ and EDITORIAL for the US newspaper database. For the LEXIS NEXIS -UK database, editorials were retrieved using the search terms VENEZUELA, HUGO CHAVEZ and LEADING ARTICLE. Editorials not focusing on these issues or not focusing on issues of political relevance were dropped from the sample ,for example those focusing on say sports or those with the mere mention of these terms with no relation to relevant issues discussed. US Newspapers From an earlier assessment of the account of data on newspaper circulations by the Audit Bureau of Circulations in both the USA and the UK, the highest circulating newspaper over the 10 year period was USA TODAY with the most circulations for the said period. The WALL STREET JOURNAL (WSJ) came second with the most circulations over the period. The WSJ will however be discounted because of its orientation mostly to financial news and events. The research would be limited to newspapers which mostly deal with political news and also focuses on foreign political news in itsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ content or publications. With these criteria, the third major political newspapers which polled the third highest number of circulations over the 10 year period was the NEW YORK TIMES (NYT). Thus editorials from the USA TODAY and the NYT will be used in the content analysis. UK Newspapers The selection criteria for the two highest Circulating newspapers in the UK however differ slightly from the basis on which the newspapers from the US were selected. THE DAILY TELEGRAPH and THE TIMES newspapers would be used in this study. The two newspapers averagely rank 4th and 7th in terms of circulation data according to the Audit Bureau from January 2000 to 2009. The two newspapers which ranked as the two highest-circulating newspapers for the 10 year period in the UK were THE SUN and DAILY MAIL. The two come under the category of Tabloid Newspapers and are not considered serious political newspapers. The two will not be the focus of this study. The DAILY MIRROR, DAILY STAR, and the DAILY EXPRESS ranked 3rd, 5th and 6th respectively. This study will focus on those newspapers which come under those usually termed newspapers-of- record or those which practice à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"seriousà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ journalism. Of the newspapers under this category,THE GUARDIAN and THE TIMES had averagely, the highest number of circulations during the 10 year period discounting those newspapers which fall under the tabloid category. A percentage breakdown of the editorials from each newspaper is found below. The four newspapers had on average a significant circulation tally during the specified period namely from (January) 2000 to (December) 2009. NEWSPAPER TOTAL NUMBER OF EDITORIALS ON VENEZUELA  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   (Jan 2000- Dec 2009) NUMBER OF QUALIFIED   EDITORIALS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL NUMBER OF   EDITORIALS USA TODAY NEW YORK TIMES 42 279    21    76 15% 54% DAILY TELEGRAPH THE TIMES 19 53    18   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   26 13% 18%   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   TOTAL:    141  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   = 100%  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   (USA=69.7%) (UK=30.3%) Why Venezuela? Venezuela offers a good to chance to study the politics behind the news. Various perceived interests are involved in relation to the US, UK and Venezuela. The controversies have been over the stifling of democracy and civil rights, the abuse of power by President Chavez, issues over the supply of oil and what it means for the two western countries to have the economy of Venezuela in a bad shape. These factors make Venezuela a good choice and would it possible to analyze Media positioning on these issues in response to a relevant third country while factoring in bi-lateral relations. Time Period The choice of long time duration will allow for significant content analysis to be done on the editorials. Since this research would also assess government statements and positions on the issues arising from Venezuela, the time period which saw the BUSH and BLAIR administration for most of the period would offer an opportunity to compare the US and UK government responses and attitudes towards Venezuelan issues with hopefully little variation in policy change. The reasoning is that an unchanged administration or party in power is likely to have the same attitudes or reactions to foreign issues from a particular country than when the administration changes over a period of time, barring any major shift in interests and policy towards Venezuela by either country during the time period. The study will take all these changes into account in the final analysis, including the editorial responses and positioning on these issues. Coding Units Editorials will be the focal point for the coding procedures. Editorials are a good basis for this study because they often represent the view or position of the newspaper. Op-Eds and editorials with Bylines (those written by individuals and credited with names) have been excluded from the sample. The focus was to look out for editorials which have been written by the editorial board of the various newspapers and would represent a justifiable opinion or position of the newspaper itself rather than the views of individual writers. Coding Procedure The source for the editorials is the academic search engine; LEXIS-NEXIS (which stores electronic copies of newspaper articles and editorials including those that this study would be focused on). Pre-testing 4 independent coders would be used to code each editorial article according to frames created from a Pre-test which has already been carried out on two other newspapers. A pretest on The Washington Post and The Guardian newspapers has been carried out to source for appropriate categories of frames to be used in the final coding of the 141 editorials. In addition, coders could add extra categories of frames to the basic list during coding to update the original codebook. 24 editorials from the Washington Post and 54 editorials from The Guardian newspapers were retrieved with the same search words as the main sample. They all fit the same criteria. 25% of each newspaperà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s editorial would be used in the Pre-test. The selection was done randomly. In all 19 editorials would be used for the Pre-test. Framing Variables Frames(meant for pre-test and to be modified). the problem frames, 1-the diagnostic frames( these coverage would identify a problem and assign a responsibility to someone or some other reason) 2-the prognostic frames.( here the study seeks to find an editorialà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s solution to particular problems) the presentation frames, 1-the issue frame ( coverage on issues such as economy, oil etc) 3-the image frame.( portraying leadership, attitudes, affiliation of subjects) General tone (is the editorial positive(supportive) or negative(condemnatory))? Coder Reliability An intercoder reliability would predict the amount of agreement or correspondence among the 4 coders. Intercoder Reliability is the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“extent to which the different judges tend to assign exactly the same rating to each object.[90] The Intercoder reliability would be checked for the Pre-test and the main test. The formula to be used is Holstià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s (1969) formula. Coder agreement on each unit of analysis( i.e frames) would be calculated. Preliminary Coding Sheet for Newspaper Editorial Content Analysis(To be amended). Technical Data: Editorial Number= give in full Paper: 1= USA; 2= NY Times; 3= Daily Telegraph; 4=The Times Date: given in full Title of Editorial: given in full Page: page on which the editorial is written. Location( section of newspaper) 1= Editorials and Opinions; 2= Features; 3=Non Stated 99= other Length of words=   please indicate number Is a source cited?: 1= Yes; 2= No; 99= other Source cited: please indicate Country Mentioned in affiliation to venezuela: please indicate Country Location(continent): 1= Africa   2=Antarctia 3=Asia 4 =Australia 5= Europe 6=North America 7=South America Issues linked to country referred to: please indicate Themes in the News: Theme of the editorial: 1 =Concerns over Venezuelan crises impacting the   world 2 =Concerns over   Venezuelan crises impacting the US 3 =Concerns of economic and political life of Venezuelans being grim 4 =Concerns over oil supply and price hikes 5 =Championing support for Chavez and policies 6 =Denouncing Chavez 7 =A critique of white house intervention in Venezuelan matters 8 =Concerns over Venezuelan influence in Latin America 9 =Need to counter Chavez influence over other states 10 =That socialist economies are often a disaster 11 =Concerns over human rights abuse 12 =Concerns over Media abuse 13 =Need to have effective policies to deal with Venezuela 14 =Supporting regime change 15 =Denouncing regime change Secondary Themes: 1= Concerns over Venezuelan crises impacting the   world 2 =Concerns over   Venezuelan crises impacting the US 3 =Concerns of economic and political life of Venezuelans being grim 4 =Concerns over oil supply and price hikes 5 =Championing support for Chavez and policies 6 =Denouncing Chavez 7 =A critique of white house intervention in Venezuelan matters 8 =Concerns over Venezuelan influence in Latin America 9 =Need to counter Chavez influence over other states 10 =That socialist economies are often a disaster 11 =Concerns over human rights abuse 12 =Concerns over Media abuse 13 =Need to have effective policies to deal with Venezuela 14 =Supporting regime change 15 =Denouncing regime change Tertiary Themes: 1 =Concerns over Venezuelan crises impacting the   world 2 =Concerns over   Venezuelan crises impacting the US 3 =Concerns of economic and political life of Venezuelans being grim 4 =Concerns over oil supply and price hikes 5 =Championing support for Chavez and policies 6 =Denouncing Chavez 7 =A critique of white house intervention in Venezuelan matters 8 =Concerns over Venezuelan influence in Latin America 9 =Need to counter Chavez influence over other states 10 =That socialist economies are often a disaster 11 =Concerns over human rights abuse 12 =Concerns over Media abuse 13 =Need to have effective policies to deal with Venezuela 14 =Supporting regime change 15 =Denouncing regime change Other Themes?: Please state Orientation of Editorial:   1= event-oriented   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   2= issue-oriented Framing of the Editorial: (A) References To Sources Domestic Sources( in US or UK) : please indicate International Sources(in Venezuela) : please indicate Other Sources: please indicate How instrumental is the source to the story: 1=very central; 2= central; 3= moderately mentioned; 4=only gets a mention (B) Character of Commentary Evaluation of Commentary: 1= very laudable; 2= favorable; 3= neutral; 4= critical; 5= abrasive; 99= other Secondary Evaluation of Commentary: 1= crusading; 2= argumentative; 3= descriptive; 4= summary; 5= cynical; 6= à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"humorousà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢; 7= à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"warningà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢/ à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"helpfulà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢; 8= à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"lyricalà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢; Descriptive Characterization of President Chavez in editorials: As 1= authoritarian   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   2= socialist/leftist   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   3= populist   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   4= autocrat   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   5= strongman   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   6= bold   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   99= other ( please state) Characterization of other persons in editorials: please mention character and indicate descrption Main Discourse: Please state any significant words used: Location of word in editorial: 1= headline   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚      2= main body 7) BIBLIOGRAPHY Althaus, Scott L. 2003. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“When News Norms Collide, Follow the Lead: New Evidence for Press Independence.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? 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Media Framing of a Civil Liberties Conflict and Its Effect on Tolerance.   American Political Science Association Tinsley, H.E.A., Weiss, D.J. (2000), Interrater reliability and agreement, in Tinsley, E.A., Brown, S.D. (Eds),Handbook of Applied Multivariate Statistics and Mathematical Modeling, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, Todd Gitlin, The Whole World is Watching (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980) p. 7.) In Occidental College,Los Angeles, CA Report released September 2009. Tuchman, G. (1978) Making the News. Pg ix. Cited in. Framing the NATO Air Strikes on Kosovo Across Countries: Comparison of Chinese and US Newspaper Coverage by Jin Yang Gazette THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR COMMUNICATION STUDIES 2003; 65; [1] THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN   DEMOCRACY:A STRATEGIC APPROACH. June 1999. 9(Technical Publication Series) pg 3- Center for Democracy and Governance Bureau for Global Programs, Field Support, and Research U.S. Agency for International Development Washington, D.C. American Political Science Association [3] Isaac A. Blankson, Patrick D. Murphy. Negotiating democracy: media tranformations in emerging democracies (2007) Pg 118 [4] CHIN-CHUAN LEE AND JUNGHYE YANG.Foreign news and national interest: Comparing U.S. and Japanese coverage of a Chinese student movement.pg 1. International Communication Gazette 1996; 56; 1.o make news, events [5] Jan A. Schevitz. The Fourth Branch of Government. An Analysis of the Initiative and Referendum Process and How the Internet Might Improve It. Senior Paper Law, Letters Society.pg 26 (May 2000) [6]CHIN-CHUAN LEE AND JUNGHYE YANG.Foreign news and national interest: Comparing U.S. and Japanese coverage of a Chinese student movement.pg 4. International Communication Gazette 1996; 56; 1, (The writers attribute this point to Entman (1989,p. 5) where he takes the Media à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"to task for failing to investigate nascent signs of policy blunders or ethical lapses among high officials.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢) [7] Althaus, Scott L.. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“When News Norms Collide, Follow the Lead: New Evidence for Press Independence.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (2003) Political Communication, 20: 382, [8] Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky. Manufacturing Consent. The political Economy of the Mass Media.(1988) The CNN effect: the myth of news, foreign policy and intervention.(2002) Introduction. Pg 1. [10] . CHIN-CHUAN LEE AND JUNGHYE YANG.Foreign news and national interest: Comparing U.S. and Japanese coverage of a Chinese student movement.pg 4. International Communication Gazette 1996; 56; 1 [11] Ibid pg 4 o make news, events [12] Ibid pg 2.   (The writers refer to studies done by Galtung and Ruge (1965)   who identified à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"factors that predispose foreign events to become news: such as elite nations, negative events, unexpectedness-within-predictability, and cultural proximity.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢) [13]Ibid pg 2. news, events [14] CHIN-CHUAN LEE AND JUNGHYE YANG.Foreign news and national interest: Comparing U.S. and Japanese coverage of a Chinese student movement.pg 14. International Communication Gazette 1996; 56; 1 [15] Claes H. de Vreese .News framing, theory and typology Pg 52. Information Design Journal -Document Design 13(1)   2005 John Benjamins Publishing company. ( The writer referred (Shoemaker Reese, 1996) that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Factors internal to journalism determine how journalists and news organizations frame issuesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ [16] Gans, H.J.Deciding Whats News. (1979) pg 37New York: Vintage Books. Cited in   CHIN-CHUAN LEE AND JUNGHYE YANG.Foreign news and national interest: Comparing U.S. and Japanese coverage of a Chinese student movement.pg 4. International Communication Gazette 1996; 56; 1pg 4 o make news, events [17] CHIN-CHUAN LEE AND JUNGHYE YANG.Foreign news and national interest: Comparing U.S. and Japanese coverage of a Chinese student movement.pg 4. International Communication Gazette 1996; 56; 1pg 5 Reference made to   (Parenti, 1986; Herman Chomsky, 1988). o make news, event [18] Entman, R.M. (1993) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigmà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Journal of Communication 43(4): 51à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"8. cited in Framing the NATO Air Strikes on Kosovo Across Countries: Comparison of Chinese and US Newspaper Coverage by Jin Yang Gazette 2003; 65;pg 231 [19] Framing the NATO Air Strikes on Kosovo Across Countries: Comparison of Chinese and US Newspaper Coverage by Jin Yang Gazette 2003; 65;pg 233 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p254266_index.html. pg 1-2 [21] Dunwoody, S. (1992). The media and public perceptions of risk: How journalists frame risk stories . In Kirk Hallahan. Seven Models of Framing: Implications for Public Relations. JOURNAL OF PUBLIC RELATIONS RESEARCH, 11(3), pg   222(1999) [22]   Kinder, D. R., Sanders, L. M. (1990). Mimicking political debate with survey questions: The case of White opinion on affirmative action for blacks. Social Cognition, 8(1),p.74. In   Kirk Hallahan. Seven Models of Framing: Implications for Public Relations. JOURNAL OF PUBLIC RELATIONS RESEARCH, 11(3), pg   209 (1999) Pg 218 [23] Claes H. de Vreese .News framing, theory and typology Pg 52. Information Design Journal -Document Design 13(1)   2005 John Benjamins Publishing company [24] Entman, R.M. (1991) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Framing US Coverage of International News: Contrasts in Narrative of the KAL and Iran Air Incidentsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Journal of Communication 41(4): pg 7. cited in Framing the NATO Air Strikes on Kosovo Across Countries: Comparison of Chinese and US Newspaper Coverage by Jin Yang Gazette 2003; 65; 231 Occidental College,Los Angeles, CA Report released September 2009. pg 8 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 7 [27] Edelman, M. (1964) The Symbolic Uses of Politics. Glencoe: University of Illinois Press. Cited in Framing the NATO Air Strikes on Kosovo Across Countries: Comparison of Chinese and US Newspaper Coverage by Jin Yang Gazette 2003; 65;pg 238 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 2-3 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p254266_index.html. pg 1 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 3 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html . https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 10 [33] Entman, Robert M. (1993) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigmà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Journal of   Communication 43(4): pg 53. In Framing of the 2003 Iraq War in Mainstream News Sites: A Comparative Study of Online News Coverage Among Five Permanent Member States of the United Nations Security Council (Abstract submitted to ICA) Na Zhang S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University October, 2003 pg 2 [34] Kirk Hallahan. Seven Models of Framing: Implications for Public Relations. JOURNAL OF PUBLIC RELATIONS RESEARCH, 11(3), pg   209 (1999) Pg 207 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p112115_index.html pg7   https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p254266_index.html. pg 1 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 10 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p254266_index.html. pg 1 [39] The Media and the Gulf War: Framing, Priming, and the Spiral of Silence Author(s): Barbara Allen, Paula OLoughlin, Amy Jasperson, John L. Sullivan Source: Polity, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Winter, 1994), pp. 266. [40] The Media and the Gulf War: Framing, Priming, and the Spiral of Silence Author(s): Barbara Allen, Paula OLoughlin, Amy Jasperson, John L. Sullivan Source: Polity, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Winter, 1994), pp. 266 [41] The Media and the Gulf War: Framing, Priming, and the Spiral of Silence Author(s): Barbara Allen, Paula OLoughlin, Amy Jasperson, John L. Sullivan Source: Polity, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Winter, 1994), pp. 266   Occidental College,Los Angeles, CA Report released September 2009 [43] Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, Choices, Values, and Frames, American Psychologist, 39 (1984): 341-50; Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, The Psychology of Preferences, Scientific American, 39 (1982): 136-42) In, The Media and the Gulf War: Framing, Priming, and the Spiral of Silence Author(s): Barbara Allen, Paula OLoughlin, Amy Jasperson, John L. Sullivan Source: Polity, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Winter, 1994), pp. 267 [44]   Evans, M. , 2008-03-26 The Effect of Media Framing on International Affairs: the Israeli-Palestinian ConflictPaper presented at the annual meeting of the ISAs 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA Online APPLICATION/PDF. 2010-01-24 from https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p254266_index.html.Pg 2 [45] Tuchman, G. (1978) Making the News. Pg ix. Cited in. Framing the NATO Air Strikes on Kosovo Across Countries: Comparison of Chinese and US Newspaper Coverage by Jin Yang Gazette THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR COMMUNICATION STUDIES 2003; 65; Pg 233 [46] Shen, F. , 2003-05-27 The Effect of News Frames and Individual Schemas on Issue Interpretations and AttitudesPaper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott Hotel, San Diego, CA Online .PDF. 2009-05-26 from https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p112115_index.htmlpg 2 [47] Claes H. de Vreese .News framing, theory and typology Pg 51. Information Design Journal -Document Design 13(1)   2005 John Benjamins Publishing company. https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p254266_index.html. pg 3 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p254266_index.html. pg 4 [50] Gamson, W. A., Modigliani, A. (1989). Media discourse and public opinion on nuclear power: A constructionist approach.American Journal of Sociology, 95, 1à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"37. In Claes H. de Vreese .News framing, theory and typology Pg 53. Information Design Journal -Document Design 13(1)   2005 John Benjamins Publishing company [51] Entman, R. B. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43, 51à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"58. In Claes H. de Vreese .News framing, theory and typology Pg 53. Information Design Journal -Document Design 13(1)   2005 John Benjamins Publishing company Pg 53 [52] Claes H. de Vreese .News framing, theory and typology Pg 53. Information Design Journal -Document Design 13(1)   2005 John Benjamins Publishing company https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p112115_index.html pg Pg 4 Occidental College,Los Angeles, CA Report released September 2009 [55]   Barbara Allen, Paula OLoughlin, Amy Jasperson, John L. Sullivan The Media and the Gulf War: Framing, Priming, and the Spiral of Silence. Polity, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Winter, 1994), pp. 269. [56] DA Scheufele : Framing as a theory of media effects . The Journal of Communication .1999 vol 49(1) pg 104. Occidental College,Los Angeles, CA Report released September 2009. [58] Claes H. de Vreese .News framing, theory and typology Pg 53. Information Design Journal -Document Design 13(1)   2005 John Benjamins Publishing company.   [59] Entman, R. B. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43, 52. In Claes H. de Vreese .News framing, theory and typology Pg 54. Information Design Journal -Document Design 13(1)   2005 John Benjamins Publishing company.( A reference is made to Entman who suggested that frames in the news can be examined and identified by à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"the presence or absence of certain keywords, stock phrases, stereotyped images, sources of information and sentences that provide thematically reinforcing clusters of facts or judgments.) [60] Claes H. de Vreese .News framing, theory and typology Pg 54. Information Design Journal -Document Design 13(1)   2005 John Benjamins Publishing company. [61] Shanto Iyengar, Is Anyone Responsible? How Television Frames Political Issues (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1991)pg 38. In Barbara Allen, Paula OLoughlin, Amy Jasperson, John L. Sullivan The Media and the Gulf War: Framing, Priming, and the Spiral of Silence. Source: Polity, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Winter, 1994), pp. 267 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p112115_index.html pg 6 [63] Althaus, Scott L. 2003. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“When News Norms Collide, Follow the Lead: New Evidence for Press Independence.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? Political Communication, 20: 384 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p254266_index.html. pg 2 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html   pg 10 [66] Pan, Z. and G.M. 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Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University October, 2003 Pg 2-3 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 4 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 4 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 5 [72] Framing the NATO Air Strikes on Kosovo Across Countries: Comparison of Chinese and US Newspaper Coverage by Jin Yang Gazette 2003; 65;pg 233 Occidental College,Los Angeles, CA Report released September 2009 Occidental College,Los Angeles, CA Report released September 2009 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 4 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 4 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 5 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 4 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 2 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 3-4 https://www.allacademic.com/meta/p91337_index.html pg 4 [82] Framing of the 2003 Iraq War in Mainstream News Sites: A Comparative Study of Online News Coverage Among Five Permanent Member States of the United Nations Security Council (Abstract submitted to ICA) Na Zhang S. 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