Saturday, August 31, 2019
The main purpose of the paper is to express my personal philosophy of nursing. The paper provides an observation of a framework of my personal practice of nursing and the reasons why I choose nursing as a profession. The issue is extremely important to be studied, researched, and analyzed as it represents the theoretical basis of each nurse and highly supports oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life philosophy and the system of interaction the nurse has with the rest of the society. Special attention is paid to the attitude that nurses have to their patients, family members, other nurses, and health care professionals as this has the major impact on the nursing practice in general. In order to define a personal philosophy of nursing, it is very important to understand the meaning of the term Ã¢â¬Å"philosophyÃ¢â¬ . As for me, this issue can be perfectly addressed with the definition that presents philosophy as a specific attitude towards life and reality that evolves according to the beliefs of each nur se (Edwards, 1997). This definition is really useful as it gives the freedom to use my own beliefs and experience to talk about this issue. The real nature of nursing is quite diverse, and it has been always a subject for a discussion among professionals trying to define whether nursing is a science or an art. I see that there is a place for both these terms when we talk about real nursing practice (June, 2004). The attitude towards nursing in my personal life has been forming through the years, beginning with my first dreams of becoming a nurse that were motivated with the desire to wear white uniform like people that I saw on television. However, as the time passed, my vision of nursing has gone through serious changes. I understood that nurse is not just a person in a uniform, but a professional who can make differences in a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s life. During the period when I was trying to make my final decision about the future professional career, I was lucky to be able to talk to and followed by real professional nurse that was trying to teach me and my family members how to look after my grandmother. This outstanding experience showed me the real meaning of this profession; therefore, I was able to see what I was going to be in future. As it is known, some researchers see nursing as an art. This tendency began with the first comparisons trying to see nursing as an art in metaphorical sense, not in the way we see fine art. These definitions were present in the works of Florence Nightingale in the end of the 19th century, when theÃ scientists were trying to adhere to nursing quality. The main issue then was the question whether there is a highest and most desirable level of nursing practice (Austgard, 2006). These thoughts and ideas are now developed in the works of Benner as this researcher also evolves the importance of quality level of nursing and caring (Benner, 1984). It is extremely important to pay attention to caring and the level of interactions between professionals and patents, their family members and the other medical workers. My personal way of interacting is based on the personal experience of taking care of my grandmother; therefore, I try to build my attitude to patients on the basis of trust and partnership. I find these aspects extremely important for the successful nursing practice. The same refers to the attitude I have towards my coworkers. As it can be seen, the nursing practice is an extremely complex issue that requires close attention and proper analysis. It is crucial for every professional to develop oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own philosophy of nursing. This process is long and can take the whole life. It also requires attention to such factor as the character of interacting with the patients, their family members, and coworkers. This issue is so important, because the successful nursing professional can play a decisive role in patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ life. References Austgard, K. (2006). The aesthetic experience of nursing. Nursing Philosophy, 7(1), 11-19. Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice (2 ed.). Menlo Park, CA: Addison Ã¢â¬â Wesley. Edwards, S. D. (1997). What is philosophy of nursing? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25(2), 1089-1093. June, K. F. (2004). Towards a philosophic theory of nursing. Nursing Philosophy, 5(1), 79-83.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Outline There are a quite a few Linux distributions available that address a variety of functionalities within the operating system ( OS ). There are many factors to consider when deciding which Linux vendor to use and what distribution will suit your needs. According to DistroWatch there are 322 active distributions available in the database. The basic difference between the desktop version and the server version is the presence of a graphical user interface ( GUI ). This paper will provide basic information on Knoppix, list the top ten Linux distributions, and provide a comparison of Ubuntu, Red Hat, and Fedora.Knoppix is an ideal option for new users. Knoppix is a low maintenance distribution that allows an individual to boot directly from a CD in order to sample the Linux environment. The user can run several different software applications and save files. More importantly, because Knoppix can be booted from a CD no actual installation takes place so there is no interruption with the existing operating system ( OS ). Ubuntu is one of the most popular versions of Linux and very user friendly.The Ubuntu desktop version comes with three years of support, a graphical user interface ( GUI ) and the following applications installed: X, Gnome, and KDE. The server version does not utilize a graphical user interface ( GUI ) and relies on the end user utilizing the command line interface ( CLI ). The server version comes with Apache Web Server 2 and Bind 9. Red Hat Enterprise Linux was formally known as Novell Linux Desktop. Redhat offers a combination options to address end user needs, but concentrated in the server area. The server side offers two 9 2 ) or four ( 4 ) socket server options and the use of virtual guests.Redhat Enterprise Desktop utilizes a layered defense system, plug-n-play support, is bundled with popular applications, which are interoperable with Microsoft counterparts. Fedora appears to be one of the more flexible versions. Fedora is an open proj ect for Redhat and allows the end user to customize the installation and choose which services and applications to install. This feature allows users to choose exactly what is needed during installation to address their needs and is targeted for at home users. References Ten Most Popular Linux Distributions ttp://geektrio. net/? p=1404 Top Ten Distributions http://distrowatch. com/dwres. php? resource=major Which is the Best Linux Distribution for your Desktop http://www. labnol. org/software/best-linux-distros/12757/ DistroWatch Weekly http://distrowatch. com/weekly. php? issue=20120723 Linux Server Distribution http://www. bashton. com/linux-distribution-comparison/ Red Hat Enterprise Linux http://www. redhat. com/products/enterprise-linux/server/compare. html Frequently Asked Questions about the Ubuntu Server Edition https://help. ubuntu. com/community/ServerFaq
Thursday, August 29, 2019
In 1939 the Musicraft Recording Label released a record which included the track, Ã¢â¬Å"Black BettyÃ¢â¬ by William Huddie Leadbetter better known as Ã¢â¬Å"Lead Belly. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Black BettyÃ¢â¬ had been said to be originated as far back as the 18th century or the early 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. Lead Belly was the first one to ever commercially record it however, giving him most of the credit for the song. Lead Belly was an iconic American folk and blues musician, notable for his strong vocals, twelve-string guitar, and the songbook of folk standards he introduced. It was recorded acapella with just Lead Belly singing and clapping on the 4th beat in the 12 bar blues style song. The form is kind of AABCDEAA, where each verse begins and ends with Ã¢â¬Å"Whoa, Black Betty (Bam-Ba-Lam). Ã¢â¬ At the end of each line Lead Belly also repeats the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"Bam-Ba-Lam. Ã¢â¬ Although this song did gain some popularity in the early 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s because of Lead Belly, it really gained the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s attention in 1977 when a band by the name of Ram Jam recorded it. Ram Jam was an east coast band formed in the mid 70Ã¢â¬â¢s. Its members consisted of Bill Bartlett (guitar), Howie Blauvelt (bass), Peter Charles (drums), Myke Scavone (lead vocals, guitar), and Jimmy Santoro (guitar). The song was released on their self-titled debut album Ram Jam in 1977. It reached the #7 position in the UK singles chart in September 1977. The single also reached #18 on the singles chart in the US. The album reached #34 in the Billboard Pop Albums chart in the US. Even though Ã¢â¬Å"Black BettyÃ¢â¬ shot Ram Jam to stardom overnight, it also brought along much controversy because of its lyrical meanings. Since this song has been said to have been originated back in the 18th century, the lyricsÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning has changed numerous amount of times. The origin and meaning of the lyrics are subject to debate. Some sources claim the song is derived from an 18th century marching cadence about a flint-lock rifle with a black head-stock; the Ã¢â¬Å"bam-ba-lamÃ¢â¬ lyric referring to the sound of the gunfire. Soldiers in the field were said to be Ã¢â¬Å"hugging Black BettyÃ¢â¬ . In this interpretation, the rifle was superseded by its Ã¢â¬Å"childÃ¢â¬ , a rifle known as a Ã¢â¬Å"Brown BessÃ¢â¬ . Other sources claim the term was a contemporary reference for a prostitute, a prison bullwhip, heroin or the Ã¢â¬Å"paddywagonÃ¢â¬ . Lead Belly was said to have been incarcerated a number of times so the second meaning rather than the interpretation about the flint lock rifle seems more accurate in his case. A more in depth look at the lyrics could possibly say that the song is about a black woman who lives in Alabama by herself. She was young and made a couple wrong decisions like drinking, drugs, and having a one-night stand with somebody. This caused her to conceive a child that she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t ready for. She wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t ready for the responsibilities of being a mother. Her child was out of control because of all the drinking and drugs she had done prior to having it. It was hard to be a single black woman and a mother in the south so the easiest thing she could do was to sell her body as a prostitute. The man in the song talks about how whenever he needs her she will be ready waiting for him. This is the kind of interpretation that gave Ram Jam much criticism and controversy. Members of the NAACP and other groups such as them were very angry saying the song degrades black women. Ram Jam just always said itÃ¢â¬â¢s not leaning towards race, itÃ¢â¬â¢s basically just having a good time with girl, whether a prostitute or not, and taking drugs such as speed which would go along with the line Ã¢â¬Å"She really gets me high. Ã¢â¬ Analyzing the musical aspect of the song is much easier than the lyrical because I is pretty straight forward. The poetic devices in this song are kind of repeating because the song isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that long. Ã¢â¬Å"Black BettyÃ¢â¬ has an AA, BB, CC rhyme scheme. The stanza is Ã¢â¬Å"whoa Black Betty (Bam-ba-Lam)Ã¢â¬ which is repeated 10xÃ¢â¬â¢s throughout the song (lines 1, 2, 8, 10, 15, 16, 17, 18, 23, & 24). The song is really just three verses so there is a lot of pure instrumental with miniature solos by all the instruments. The instruments used were, 3 guitars, a bass, and drums. The drummer keeps the beat throughout the first 35 seconds of the song with the hi-hat cymbal by hitting on all four beats by itself for the first 10 seconds but for the rest of the 35 seconds the guitars and bass come in to play the bridge. The crash cymbal then comes in with guitars and bass stopping and lyrics are sung and the crash cymbal is hit on beats 2 and 4, the back beat, and the hi-hat now hits on beats 1 and 3. This back beat is used widely through rock, hard rock, and especially by all forms of metal. Although it was used efore this song came out, Ã¢â¬Å"Black BettyÃ¢â¬ definitely highlighted the use of the backbeat. During this first verse, and the other 2 verses also, it is just the drummer and the singer with the guitars and bass coming in and just playing between every 2nd and 3rd beat. Once the verse is over however the tempo speeds up and the showcase of guitars begins. Once the second verse begins, it goes back to the drums and singer but once this second verse ends, the tempo speeds to double time beginning with a drum solo into guitar solos for a solid 1:35. Once that 2:50 part hits the song takes a turn towards an easy groove feel with the tempo going back to the way it was in the beginning. At 3:05 however the tempos speeds up a little bit and plays the bridge that it had played before the first verse was sung. At 3:30, the third and final verse is sung just like the other two with the drummer playing that same crash cymbal on beats 2 and 4 and the hi-hat on 1 and 3. Once the third verse is done, they play about 10 seconds of an outro and the song is over. Although lyrically the song is pretty simple, I believe if you can perfect a simple song, it will make it great and with the guitar, bass, and drums that Ram Jam had put into this song to accompany the lyrics, it is a great song. You can obviously see that they were influenced by Lead Belly, but also by early rock bands such as Lynyrd Skynyrd, Eagles, Kansas, and ZZ Top because itÃ¢â¬â¢s that southern rock sound and feel that those bands made famous. Since Ram Jam released Ã¢â¬Å"Black BettyÃ¢â¬ it not only put their name on the map but also rocketed that song to tons of movies and TV shows. It will go down as one of the best rock songs of all time.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
World literature - Essay Example From my own point of view, I think history is subordinate to literature. The fact that literature will only reflect on historical events even with an added creativity, it demonstrates the inevitable reliance of literature on history (Nichols, 2010). History shapes the existing forms of literature. Hence, it is arguably true that history creates literature though it only forms the backbone. Literature narrates to us historical events to us with abject memory, logic, and ease (Frisina, 2006). However, literature has also borrowed from history in making laws where all laws rely on teachings from the early holy books like the Bible and Quran. Consequently, literature defines history in that it provides a timeline for history and specifically enables us to learn history in a more approachable, understandable and interesting manner. There are limits of interpretation, social and historical dimensions, authenticity, and facts about authorÃ¢â¬â¢s life in analyzing literary works. In conclu sion, I note that to get the definite relationship between history and literature we may need to look at their causes and effects. Hence, a research on these aspects will help in defining explicitly the meanings of history and
Macro exam 3 - Assignment Example In any market, money flows from the buyer to the seller, the money will therefore move from the household to the firms. However, as indicated earlier, market for goods and services are not the only markets available lest the firms would have all the money in a given field. The firm therefore has to pay for the factors of production to have the finished product i.e. the automobile. The factors of production for example capital needs to be in place. To manufacture the automobile, there are the machines which need to be bought and the labor that will do the work. Therefore in the second phase of the model, the household will give labor, capital and land to the firms while the money flows back to the household. The model is circular due to the flow of money from the households to the firms and back. The main goals of any given economy include economic growth, reduction of the number of unemployed people in the given economy or country and low inflation. A countryÃ¢â¬â¢s increase in the standard of peoples living is used to define a growth in the economy. This is done by enhancing production and ensuring that the economy is self-sustaining. A high rate of unemployment is seen in a country or society where many people want to get jobs where they are employed or are earning an income but they do not get it. Lack of economic growth is depicted by rise in unemployment levels in a given country among other factors. When inflation hits a given country, the price of goods and services shoot up. Using the price index, it is possible to measure the price level and establish whether there is inflation of prices or not. The peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ standard of living is determined by the economic growth in the specific region. If there is no economic growth, the peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ standard of living will be low. There were various reasons that led to the culmination of the great depression. These include; - the crisis in the agricultural sector that led to the
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
How political, economic, and other ideologies affect America, China, and Japan's societies - Essay Example The rise of China also presented strategic challenges to Japan, and the effects were deepened by the economic recession Ã¢â¬â necessitating the painful restructuring and reform of the economy and system. Areas requiring restructuring include that the Japanese economy is suffering from the effects of an aging society. The US economy, similar to that of Japan, suffered from stock market and real estate bubbles that deflated, ushering in an anaemic growth (Wiseman and Ellig 866). The US is facing a similar fate as Japan, mainly because low interest rates and monetary measures have hindered the proliferation of imbalances. This paper will compare and contrast the economic systems of America, Japan and China, and also explore the effects of their respective economic, political and other ideologies. The similarities between the two countries include that the national cultures and the economic ideologies of the three countries are predominantly shaped by their historical values and national heritage. For example, individualistic values are more predominant in the US and in China; the collective outlook is predominant (Ralston et al. 9). On the other hand, Japan has an individualistic-inclined economic ideology, but a collectivist national culture, which distinguishes it from the rest. The second area of similarity between the three is that individual work values have been shaped by their cultural and social heritage. For example, in China, poor performance at work is not enough grounds to fire an employee, the case of Japan is relatively less extreme and in the US, the individualistic outlook makes it very easy for one to lose employment due to poor performance (Ralston et al. 10). Despite the fact that the Chinese and the Japanese share many characteristics, including religion, philosophy and culture, some political and economic-based factors make the two societies distinctive. To start with, Japan and China
Monday, August 26, 2019
Employment Law Assessment - Essay Example In this analysis, steps that BSG Company can take to prevent legal action from Tony against the company because of the events that occurred have been recommended. This case involves HR issues, as well as, legal issues. First, it should be noted that both employers and employees have a shared responsibility to ensure that everything is alright in working practices and working conditions, as well as, other areas of working life. These areas include grievances, health and safety at the workplace. Employers owe a legal duty of care to their employees (Gennard & Judge, 2005, p, 378). It is expressive that Tony has an injury to mental health because he has not been reporting to work for four weeks due to stress associated with the ridicule he has been going through at work, after he was nicknamed the Ã¢â¬ËBSG SmurfÃ¢â¬ . Therefore, the legal issue in relation to this situation is that BSG Limited has failed to fulfil its duty, as an employer, of ensuring health and safety at the workpl ace for Tony, as one of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees. Instead, Tony has been subjected to harassment from fellow employees, and the company has not taken any reasonable steps to stop this behaviour, in spite of the fact that this has been going on for a period of four weeks. It is imperative to note that harassment is prohibited both in criminal and civil law (Groenendijk, Guild, & Minderhoud, 2003, p, 181). Employers should guarantee a healthy and safe working environment for their employees is healthy and safe, as outlined in the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (ACAS, 2012, p, 3). Therefore, employers should ensure that there is a code of practice enforcing discipline, which employees should follow. The BSG HR has failed to ensure that discipline is observed by all employees to prevent unacceptable behaviour towards other employees, which may cause harm. As a result of MickeyÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour and other employees at the Guildford BSG garage, Tony is suffering from stress. Fu rthermore, according to the Law of Tort, individuals have a duty not to act in ways that may cause physical or mental harm to others. Tort of Negligence in employment law requires or places a duty on employers to ensure the safety of employees (Mothersole & Ridley, 1999, p, 512). According to Gennard & Judge (2005, p, 378), stress levels that are allowed in the place of work is not regulated or controlled by specific statute. As a result, general doctrines that apply in addressing personal injury claims are used to address issues of work related stress. In law, mental health injury such as stress is treated just like physical health injury (Gennard & Judge, 2005, p, 378). Employers are generally responsible in the law for the acts of their employees, unless the employers can show that they took reasonably practical steps to prevent the employee carrying out the harassment from doing so (Davies, 2010, p, 68). It a high test for employers to show that indeed they took steps, which wer e practically reasonable to stop harassment. Employers are responsible for the unacceptable, harassment activities of their employees, if the victim proves that there was a course of two or more occasions of harassment that caused harm, and the perpetrator must have known or ought to have known the conduct amounted to harassment, as per the provisions of the Protection from Harassment Act 1997 (Davies, 2010, p,
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Responding to religious diversity in classrooms - Case Study Example her customs and norms of different cultures, but one has to be prudent enough to close argumentative statements and believes when the initial signs begin to show. One aim of every class teacher is to make her students a positive and appreciative member of society who can respect and give space to different cultural believes. Therefore awareness of diversity among children is an acceptable notion .Different sessions for students and parents can be held so to spread the awareness about religious diversity. Workshops for parents of the mainstream culture can also be held so they can train their off springs with the understanding of acceptance. Developing a sense of sensitivity in both parent and children can help in a long run to the road of acceptance. A teacher needs to study the background and the profile of the child thoroughly and before planning keeping those distinguishing factors in mind, plan an activity. And if somehow the event calls for the same activity trims and change activity for that specific child who can not perform due to his ideas or
Saturday, August 24, 2019
POS 202 - International Relations - - Essay Example The author is assuming that the traditional means of bringing order have become ineffective. As much as it sounds hard, leaders should start cultivating the new kind of bringing order. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s assumptions are valid, and I agree with his line of argument. It is in line with the Balance of Power theory, which states that when secondary states are given a free will to choose on whom to side in an international systemÃ¢â¬â¢s two coalitions, they will always side with the weaker side (Waltz 127). It is to avoid being threatened by the stronger side. It is the reason most of the Middle East countries have sided with Palestine over Israel. The only way to control Hamas is by working with moderate Palestinians, and they will thus help Israel control Hamas. Israel faces so many non-state actors, and Hamas, a political group that advocates violence is the main one. Hamas interacts with state of Palestine through its institutions and populations which in turn help them in planning attacks and violence (Papp 102). Hamas can even teach radical Palestine civilians on making homemade drones and rockets. The only way that the state of Israel can curtail the HamasÃ¢â¬â¢ drones and rocket threat is by the Gaza Palestinians demanding the rockets to stop. The only way that the Palestinians can demand that is when the state of Israel works with them. At times, national interest should supersede sovereignty (Papp 88). It is at times preferable to accept freedom of action constraints in order to achieve a wider benefit. Israeli government must be able to let some pride go for the sake of a wider benefit. It must be able to work closely with the Palestine authorities; the same tactic America applied in Iraq, to have lasting peace. Liberty must at times be limited for it to be possessed (Papp 52). States should move from their roles of hedging risks and preservation of failing status quo to shaping a
Friday, August 23, 2019
Jury Selection - Essay Example Written by Neil Kressel, a social psychologist at New Jersey's William Paterson University, and his wife Dorit, a practicing attorney, this book provides an even-handed accounting of the methods and ethical issues of the phenomenon called jury consultancy and its possible implications for American justice. It provides a discussion regarding the use of jury consultants in sensitive matters such as race and answers the questions: What do jury consultants do Are their elaborate efforts to assist lawyers in the jury selection process by identifying attitudes, values, and would-be demographic predictors merely benign efforts to screen for biases that could jeopardize fair trials, as practitioners like to claim Scientific Jury Selection is a well-written volume that reviews the research and issues surrounding scientific jury selection. The authors examine the many factors and methods involved in this process and provide a balanced and comprehensive review of the literature as well as raise important scientific and ethical questions. Chapters review such factors as methods of acquiring information and applying those methods to the actual process of jury selection. The volume raises substantial issues about the accuracy and efficacy of the selection process, as well as its ethical and legal implications. In addition, it provides the basis for the psychological methods used. 4. A. Austin (1984). Complex Litigation Confronts the Jury System, 103-104. Greenwod Press, US. Austin provides a case study in which one could gain valuable insight into the workings of jury consultancy and provides an analysis and possible implications of the methods used thru the case study presented. 5. Leci, L., Snowden, J. and Morris, D (2004). "Using Social Science Research to Inform and Evaluate the Contributions of Trial Consultants in the Voir Dire." Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice 4.2 (2004) 67-78 The authors argue that the jury selection methods commonly employed by trial consultants and lawyers in the voir dire process are fraught with problems because they do not employ standardized assessments. This commentary provides and advocates the advantages of employing standardized, reliable, and validated measures of pretrial juror bias to more effectively conduct the voir dire, and we delineate some of the methods by which this can be accomplished. 6. Lieberman, Joel D., and Bruce D. Sales (2007). "Overall Effectiveness of Scientific Jury Selection" in PsycINFO. Washington DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2007. Lieberman and Sales provides a discussion on matters of jury consultancy such as the Purpose and effectiveness of the Voir Dire, influence of demographic factors, influence of Personality and Attitudes, in-court questioning of prospective jurors and ethical and professional issues in Scientific Jury Selection. 7. Van Wallendael, Lori, and Brian Cutler (2004).
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The Music of the Night Essay In operas, either people love them or hate them. Play and song writer Andrew Lloyd Webber portrays a new light on opera in the famous musical The Phantom of the Opera. In scene five of the musical where the Phantom of the Paris Opera House sings a romantic melody entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The Music of The NightÃ¢â¬ to the orphaned ballerina dancer Christine Daae, he is telling her to Ã¢â¬Å"Close [her] eyes and surrender to [her]/ darkest dreams!/ Purge [her] thoughts of the life/ [she] knew before!Ã¢â¬ (12-15). He is basically telling her to live up to her dreams and for her not to let her past hold her back. The Phantom knows that Christine looks up to him as her guide; she calls him Ã¢â¬Å"The Angel of MusicÃ¢â¬ . When her father was alive when she was younger he was a famous violinist and he told her repeatedly that a guardian called Ã¢â¬Å"The Angel of MusicÃ¢â¬ would look after her if he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t able to (ChristineÃ¢â¬â¢s Character). ChristineÃ¢â¬â¢s father fell ill and died when she was only seven years old and she was taken in by a family friend that spent a great time at the Opera HouseÃ¢â¬âthat is where her career started to begin. Christine Daae had troubles and tried to forget about them, but the Phantom knew that it isnt easy to forget someone you once had close to you; and he knew it was affecting her talent. When he sang to her, he reassured her by letting her know that she should Ã¢â¬Å"turn [her] thoughts away from cold, unfeeling lightÃ¢â¬ meaning that when she starts to think about heartbreaking and miserable thoughts, she needs to stop (9-10). In the following lines 24-28, he lets her know that she needs to, Ã¢â¬Å"Open up [her] mind, Let her fantasies unwind, In this darkness which, [She] knows [she] cannot fight- The darkness of the music of the nightÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Thus, letting her know that even though it is hard to overcome her troubled past, she should bring out her emotions in her performance when she listens to any harmony of music; he knows that in every musical number, there is darkness behind it someway, somehow and she can portray it with beauty and grace. The Phantom believes in her and looks after her just like her father said that an Ã¢â¬Å"Angel of MusicÃ¢â¬ would. The Phantom lets Christine truly believe this by hearing him sing this ballad; trying to show her that she can let her dream begin at anytime, but only she, herself, can let her darker side give in to the power of the music (39-41). So, he uses the word Ã¢â¬Å"garishÃ¢â¬ in the song, which means, according to an online dictionary, crudely or tastelessly colorful, showy, or elaborate (Garish define). He is stating that the Ã¢â¬Å"garish light of dayÃ¢â¬ can be misleading and that she should just focus on the music of the night (8). The Phantom makes the night life sound very appealing by the introducing lines of the song: Ã¢â¬Å"Night-time sharpens, Heightens each sensation Darkness stirs and wakes imagination Silently the senses abandon their defensesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (1-4) He is showing her that at night fall imagination stirs and bubbles forth no matter who the person is. They recognize feelings at night time, before, that at times they may have never felt, therefore pushing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination towards how they feel. For example, in ChristineÃ¢â¬â¢s situation, she may have never really put much thought towards how much she really misses her father and why it is holding her back from achieving more in her life. As she has some time alone at night to think, to dream, she is able to have time to search her inner most thoughts and reflect her life and imagine what it could have been if her father was still around. That can bring out her senses, her defenses are then abandoned, and she has just discovered a little of what makes her connect with the music of the night. ChristineÃ needs to not live with feelings that overshadow her life and she should start a journey through this new experience. All-in-all, the song Ã¢â¬Å"The Music of The NightÃ¢â¬ is about us getting in touch with our imagination and us embracing our feelings. Andrew Lloyd Webber fully captivated audiences around the world and made them take hold of their mindÃ¢â¬â¢s eye and their senses. The music in this chilling masterpiece is mind opening in which one can let their fantasies take flight. When listening to the song and fully taking in itÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning, a person, such as me, can really let the beautiful lyrics flow loudly out of the boom box speakers and into the thoughts of my life. So, like Christine, the Phantom was reassuring her that in the end Ã¢â¬Å"[She] alone can make [his] song take flight-/ help [him] make the music of the nightÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (42-43). Only she is capable of accepting the help from Ã¢â¬Å"The Angel of MusicÃ¢â¬ and the help from herself as she tries to use her imagination and the sensation that the night brings to help her over come the feelings that affect her perfo rmance on the stage and in her everyday life. Even though her father had passed, she found what she thinks to be Ã¢â¬Å"The Angel of MusicÃ¢â¬ and she is now following her fathers wish, yet she is finding herself along the way. That is what is best for her, to keep moving forward with her life while achieving her dreams.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The Importance of Raw Material in Cement Industry Essay Raymond mill adopts the advanced structures of similar products from home and abroad, and gets improved on the basis of Raymond mills in the same industry. It is more efficient than ball mill, which also has the advantages of low power consumption, small floor space and one-time investment. The cement industry has closely relation with Raymond raw materials. Raymond the pros and cons of raw materials is an important factor to determine the product quality is good or bad. Raymond amount of raw materials determines the size of the production scale. Generally produce one ton of cement consumed 1. 6 tons of Raymond raw materials. And mostly natural Raymond raw materials. Therefore. Dependence Raymond raw materials is essentially dependent on natural resources. Taiwan in the cement clinker, c; s, c2s, c3A and ctAp four major minerals, calcium components provided by the calcareous Raymond materials, silicon aluminum composition of the raw clay. In addition, according to the needs of the production process of product varieties need to join the iron correction Raymond raw materials. Usually in the raw meal calcareous Raymond raw materials accounted for about 80%. The clayey Raymond raw materials accounted for 20 to 15 percent. Therefore. The the calcareous Raymond raw materials and clay Raymond raw materials essentially determine the performance of the raw material. In addition, the cement production process, sometimes adding some auxiliary materials, such as in the raw meal by adding mineralizer flux burn ability phase-liquid nature to improve the raw material, plus nearly grinding aids to improve the mill Yang grinding efficiency; add to squat together material common Yang grinding to improve the performance of cement and increase cement production; added retarder to adjust the setting time of cement clinker. The cement industry care there are three types of solid fuel, liquid and gaseous fuels. The solid fuel is the main fuel of the current members of the cement industry, commonly used in bituminous coal and anthracite. Liquid fuels for heavy oil. R shortage of fuel resources and in order to save energy, In addition to the production of special cement. The burning oil into methane coal. Gas preserves materials in the natural gas, cement industry to natural gas as fuel, is not yet universal. Technically advanced, economic death is reasonable. Is a kind of useful development of the fuel of the future and needs of comprehensive development.
Helping Nursing Students to plan and understand their career Introduction This paper provides critical information aimed to help Nursing Students to plan out their career and have a better understanding of Reflection Nursing in the health care industry. The paper is separated into two different parts. As a nurse, individuals are exposed to several number of employment positions during the working life. The paper consists of two specific areas related to the industry. The success of a nursing career depends on gaining experience, skills and competencies to climb the ladder with different roles at higher and higher levels (Turner, 2007). Therefore, the first part of the paper provides the reader with a Career Development plan along with an analysis of the main skills and attributes requires for a nurse to have in them. The second part of the paper focuses n Reflection Nursing, discussing the aspects of this practice, including the importance of it, even though it is a criticized area in the health industry itself. This paper will focus on the technicalities behind starting off a Nursing Career and also, discuss aspects of the industry that involves constant reflections, critical thinking and analysis. Part A A Nursing Career Plan According to Dan Thomas (1994), you must manage your career like a business. In order to pursue in nursing, a career plan is an essential tool for professional development, job satisfaction and illustrates commitment to your discipline. The career as a nurse is a rewarding career with plenty of room for advancement and development (Zehr, 2010). My long term goal to achieve is to be a nurse who leads an entire ward of a health institute. However, to get there, I need to have a strong foundation. Therefore, within the coming 3 years, through hard work and continuing education, I would like to become a registered nurse and start working in an established health institute. The main attribute that attracted me towards this career is because being a nurse requires you to be intimately involved with another human being (Turner, 2007). I once read that Nursing affords the opportunity to make a difference in the lives of others. You can earn good money, but you can also make a difference (Hugg, 2005, cited in Turner 2007). This was the main aspect that drove me towards a nursing career in general. This career requires you to be involved in peoples most important life moments, such as birth, death or even surgery (Turner, 2007). Along with this, in the nursing career, there are always chances for more advancement and diverse ranges of specialty. In order to reach my goal to be a nurse in a leadership role, there are few processes I have to go through. The first is to pursue my Bachelors Degree of Science in Nursing. As an undergraduate, I would be able to study and familiarize with areas such as medical technology, patient care procedures, math, anatomy and biology, along with any specialized areas I might consider in the future, such as surgical nursing, obstetrics nursing, etc (Jeffress, 2003). The completing of a nursing degree takes a minimum of 2 years. While pursuing my nursing degree, I want to join an internship program at a hospital. This would be a chance for me to earn while learning. By joining an internship program, I will be able to demonstrate the understanding and competence in technical skills and procedures related to my specialty while being provided with an opportunity to apply sound clinical judgment and critical thinking throughout the process in the management of patient care (Lee Memorial, 2011). In short, I will be able to gain a knowledge base and skill set needed to transition to competence in clinical nursing practice. After the completion of my 2 year degree program, the biggest step I need to take is to pass the national licensing test in order to earn my Registered Nurse Credentials. This test would be where my theoretical and practical skills will be tested in order to ensure that I have the required qualifications to become a Practical Nurse. Passing this test would set the path to the starting off of my nursing career. Most new nurses begin their careers in emergency rooms, ambulatory care units, and general hospitals (Jeffress, 2003). Hence following the passing of the licensing exam, I would apply to work as an emergency room nurse, starting off my practical career. From here onwards, I would work my way up the ladder, to reach my long term goal, pursuing my continuing education along the way. While this would by plan for the coming three years, I plan to stay active in my career development throughout my whole career in order to stay successful. This is because many nurses careers burnout or stagnates with time without considering long-term strategies (Turner, 2007). Skills Attributes needed for a Nursing Career Nursing is a service profession (Turner, 2007) which requires me to have a combination of several skills. Nursing career is an integral part of the healthcare profession which calls for skill, hard work and devotion. While there are several skills required to be in a nurse, there are certain skills that takes priority which are: Professionally Competent knowledge based skills and ability to answer questions feasibly Developed Interpersonal Skills communication and observational skills Emotional Skills be able to deal with emotionally charged situations and ability to offer advice Being professionally competent is defined as the knowledge and skills of the nurse to make decisions and prioritize care, and includes competence in relation to physical or technical aspect of care (McCormack McCance, 2010). As a nurse I need to be organized and be effective in multitasking. While taking care of patients, nurses interact a lot with them, sometimes more than the doctors themselves. So, in order to answer any question the patient or their family might have, I would need to have a deep knowledge and understanding of the conditions of the patients (NHS Careers, 2011). A strong background in Science is required to understand most aspect of this area since it helps me understand better what is wrong with the patients. Since nurses are responsible for recording patients information such as the medical history accurately, it is important for a nurse to be intuitive to ask the right questions without missing out any critical part. Along with working with patients, a nurse ha s to work with different kinds of machines and medications during work (College Crunch, 2009). In order to work with these tools harmoniously, a nurse requires being fluent in math. Being familiar with math includes being fluent with both the standard and metric system of measurement, specifically while dealing with medications (College Crunch, 2009). According to Calman (2006), patients describe competent nursing practice as a combination of technical care and nursing knowledge, but it is only when technical care is assumed that interpersonal attributes become the more important indicators of quality nursing care. Another main kill that is required for nurses to have is a well developed set of interpersonal skills. As a nurse, I would have to work with doctors, patients and a team of other nurses communicating with them in a very fast paced environment (College Crunch, 2009). Poor interpersonal communication by a nurse can be profound and often increases the vulnerability experienced by patients. As a nurse, its crucial to be a good at listening as well as talking. With the patients, this is important to make them and their loved ones feel secure leaving their care in your hands and this skill proves important with doctors and your peer because without communicating with them, carrying out the task of patient care will be impossible. Nurses also have to be constantly alert to changes in patients conditions and the implications in terms of care (NSH Careers, 2011). They have to be able to spot anything out of the ordinary or basically anything that doesnt seem right. These changes need to be co mmunicated back to the doctors clearly and concisely in order to ensure the patients well being. With poor interpersonal skills, barriers might occur in this communication process which might include misunderstandings and even lack of information provided to certain parties involved in this communication process. In healthcare, these are errors that might lead to grave problems. Effective communication requires a combination of good verbal and non-verbal skills (McCormack McCance, 2010). Therefore, as a nurse, I would have to be able to understand gestures and facial expressions of my patients, peers as well as doctors, especially during an emergency. Emotional skills can be considered as the next main attribute a nurse is required to have. Empathy and compassion are foundation of nursing care (Turner, 2007). As a nurse, I would be able to see people at their worst days and also at their best. This involves me to have developed traits such as caring, understanding, being non-judgmental and have a strong ability to empathize with the patients from all the walks of life (College Crunch, 2009). At times of crises, a nurse is required to play a key part in helping patients and their loved ones come through these crises and manage distress within a very distressed environment. This requires very strong emotional stability in a person. Since I plan to start off my career from an emergency room, this skill set needs to be extra strong in me. This is because in the emergency room of a hospital, nurses have to deal with people who are very sick, disabled, or experiencing any number of physical, mental and emotional issues and even major ac cidents (College Crunch, 2009). In an environment as such, I would have to be emotionally strong enough to provide the patients with the help they require without letting the situation affect my judgment or quality of work. In order to gather emotional skills, I would have to learn take care of myself in order to be balanced enough to provide care to other since I will encounter difficult staff members, angry physicians, non-cooperating patients and disgruntled family members as well (Turner, 2007). With these skills and many others put in consideration, I will be able to achieve my goal into becoming a successful registered nurse. Part B In the nursing practice, reflection is a process of reviewing an experience of practice in order to describe, analyze and evaluate and so inform leaning from practice (Bulman, 2004). Reflection is undoubtedly an important concept, which has succeeded in stimulating debate and investigation, and influencing nursing education around the world (Bulman, 2004). This process involves focusing on how the individuals interact with their colleagues and with the environment to obtain a clearer picture of their own behavior (Nursing Times, 2004). Reflective thinking highlights the intermingling of practitioners feelings and emotions, and acknowledges this interrelationship with actions as well as the importance of intellectual thinking thus providing a vehicle for legitimizing professional knowledge that develops from the realities of practice and challenges more traditional form of knowing (Bulman, 2004). The process of reflection in nursing aims to develop professional actions that are aligned with personal beliefs and values. Current thinking in nursing advocates the need for nurses to be educated in ways that develop their autonomy, critical thinking, sensitivity to others and their open-mindedness (Reed Ground, 1997). Nursing is a practice discipline and effective preparation of nursing requires that we are able to care competently for our clients and continue to develop our skills and knowledge over a professional lifetime. They are responsible for providing care to the best of their ability to patients and their families (Turner, 2007). In order to achieve this, it is vital for nurses to focus on their knowledge, skills and behavior to ensure that they are able to meet the demands made on them by this commitment. According to Fitzgerald (1994), nurses develop competence through a process of critical reflection on experience; they examine their work and the contribution their nu rsing and nursing generally makes socially. She also states that in turn, nurses also consider the effect social forces have upon themselves and their work. Through the process of reflection, nurses are able to gain a heightened awareness of the variety of factors that shape their practice resulting in informed practice (Bowden, 2003). Grasping the idea that reflection is a combination of thinking, emotion and commitment to action is not an easy one. (Bulman, 2004). The process of achieving reflection in a field such as nursing can be seen as a challenge. These skills required to achieve reflection was stated by Atkins Murphy (1993) as self-awareness, description, critical analysis, synthesis and evaluation. But while the competent nurse just beginning to utilize the reflective practice is unlikely to be able to use all of these, this stems in part from the limitations of the level of performance which may be efficient and complex but is based on deliberate planning (Benner, 1984). Reflective practice is part of the requirement for nurses constantly to update professional skills. As a nurse, professional competency is a vital attribute to ensure efficiency in their daily works. Using reflective practice, portfolio offers considerable opportunity for reflection on ongoing development. Annual reviews of their self and skills allow nurses to identify their own strengths and areas of opportunity for future development (Nurse Times, 2004). Reflectio n on personal attitudes, feelings and values as well as reflection on life and educational experience is a critical process in nursing education; it is a critical process in becoming a nurse (Lundy Janes, 2009). However, there are some cases where it has been identified that reflections of the nurses as taken-for-granted assumptions that rarely acknowledge that doing as a nurse is more important than thinking or reflecting (Bowden, 2003). For reflection to be really meaningful, it must being with a shared overall aim to achieve effective learning and positive experience. Nurses face ethical dilemmas, and both professions are characterized by specific moral discourses and practiced. In nursing, it is importance to practice a professional identity and practice of personal behavior bound up with notions of moral agency: empathy, compassion, understanding. It is imperative that self-reflection be developed early in the educational experience and continued in nursing practice (Lundy Janes, 2009). Reflective practice potentially provides a way to justify the importance of practice and recognizes the interrelationship between theoretical and practical knowledge, embracing the intermingling of thin king, emotion and action (Bulman, 2004). This appeals to nurses especially because it they are able to identify with this aspect of reflective thinking since it provides a justification for practice knowledge. Peden MacAlpine (2005) discusses the importance of design, evaluation and outcomes of a reflective practice intervention that can be used to train critical care nurses on how to incorporate family intervention into their nursing practice. The befits and problems of reflective practice are many and most beneficial aspects include improvement of professionalism and better ability to tackle similar situation leading to professional development through experience in nursing (Oxbridge, 2011). Reflection practicing relates to a nurses experience and learning from the experience, helping them to change their attitude towards critical care especially in family and enhanced their communication and ability to build proper relationships with families bringing in a new way of understanding family stress or appreciating family values. Reflection helps nurses face practical problems encountered related to role integration, professional autonomy, legal and consent issues, non-medical prescribing and role evaluation. Considering the benefits of changing nursing attitudes and developing professionalism through reflective practice, many researchers have emphasized the need to use reflective practice as a training method within nursing education (Oxbridge, 2011). Guidelines could be developed according to the theoretical framework of reflective practice and can give a new direction nursing education. Reflective thinking has become a popular word in nursing education worldwide, but its meaning and effective use remains debatable because of lack of clarity in its meaning (Mackintosh, 1998). Donald SchÃ ¶n (1983) suggested that the capacity to reflect on action so as to engage in a process of continuous learning was one of the defining characteristics of professional practice. Nurses should consider the ways in which they interact and communicate with their colleagues. Communication as discussed in Part A of this paper is a vital attribute to a nurse in the face paced environment they work in. And using reflective practicing in order to harmoniously communicate with the peers help create a more efficient working environment along with developing their personal skills as well. They should aim to become self-aware, self-directing and in touch with their environment (Nursing Times, 2004) rather than depending on their peers to carry out certain works during their daily work. This allows the nurses to provide efficient service to the clients/patients more feasibly through reflective thinking. It allows the nurses to think out of the box rather than stick to traditional meth ods and moving forward in their career themselves. This goal can be achieved by making full use of the opportunities available to them via the feedback using the impact on patients, their families, colleagues and the organization as a whole (Nursing Times, 2004). Hospitals over the millennium have developed relinquishing their role as the recognized hub of care delivery, while delivery of health care services at home, at work, at play, in schools and churches, online with the World Wide Web through the internet, and on the telephone continues to increase. In order to stay on course with these developments, nurses have been challenged to re-conceptualize their roles within the complex and changing medical contexts (Forde, McPhee, McCahon Patrick, 2006). Reflective Practicing can be used as a feasible tool against such as discriminatory practices. This tool can be used as a framework for professional development by analyzing the current, past and future actions of the individuals to avoid going against the strong ethical codes set for nurses. Evaluations along with alternatives to similar situations can be provided using reflective practice to ensure that problems do not arise in behavior of professionals (Oxbridge, 2011). While there are no set rules to developing a reflective framework, with experience an efficient framework can be developed incorporating not only reflections on actions but ethical, political and broader social issues that develop for a given experience (Bowden, 2003). This helps bring together a reflective solution that works for an organization in whole, ensuring more efficient processing of daily works within the organization. Comments that reflective practice is regarded by many authors as particular importance to continuing professional excellence which has lead to an almost unquestioned element in professionalism; the room to excellence is through reflection (Forde, McPhee, McCahon Patrick, 2006). Reflection in nursing leads to the individuals in developing their skills in leadership and provide stability to deal with difficulties and complexities within a stressing environment such as a hospital. As discussed above, there is enough educational research and theory that advocates the importance and effectiveness of learning through reflective practicing (Bulman, 2004). Through constant questioning, we see more clearly just who we really are, and what remarkable resources we have access to. We will also see more clearly, what is really facing us, and we will become more capable of accepting and responding to change (Ferguson, 2010). Conclusion In conclusion, the Nursing Career is clearly a career with chances for development and allows individuals to continue their education as they progress through their career. During their career, nurses needs to develop extensive skills during their daily basis and also use their intelligence to climb up the ladder in their career. With long-term planning and reflective practicing in hand, it is obvious that one could become very successful in the a career such as nursing.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Hacking Another one got caught today, it's all over the papers. "Teenager Areested in Computer Crime Scandal", "Hacker Arrested after Bank Tampering"....Damn kids. They're all alike. But did you , in your three-piece psychology and 1950's technobrain, ever take a look behind the eyes of the hacker? Did you ever wonder what made him tick, what forces shaped him, what may have molded him? I am a hacker, enter my world...Mine is a world that begins with school... I'm in junior high or high school. I've listened to teachers expain for the fifteenth time how to reduce a fraction. I understand it "No, Ms. Smith, I didn't show my work. I did it in my head..." Damn kid . Probably copied it. They're all alike. I made a discovery today. I found a computer. Wait a second, this is cool. It does what I want it to. If it makes a mistake, it's because i screwed it up. Not because it doesn't like me... Or feels threatened by me.. Or thinks I'm a smart ass... Or doesn't like teaching and shouldn't be here... Damn kid. All he does is play games. They're all alike. And then it happened... a door opened to a world... rushing through the phone line like heroin through an addict's veins, an electronic pulse is sent out, a refuge from the day-to-day incompetencies is sought... a board is found. "This is it... this is where I belong... "I know everyone here... even if I've never met them, never talked to them, may never hear from them again... I know you all... Damn kid. Tying up the phone line again. They're all alike... you bet you ass we're all alike... we've been spoon- fed baby food at school when we hungered for steak.. the bits of meat that you did let slip through were pre-chewed and tasteless. We've been dominated by sadists, or ignored by the apathetic. The few that had something to teach found us willing pupils, but those few are like drops of water in the desert. This is our world now... the world of the electron and the switch, the beauty of the baud. We make use of a service already existing without paying for what could be dirt-cheap if it wasn't run by profiterring gluttons, and you call us criminals. We explore... and you call us criminals. We seek after knowledge.. and you call us criminals. We exist without skin color, without nationality, without religious bias...and you call us criminals? Yes, I am a criminal. My crime is that of curiosity. Hacking :: essays research papers Hacking Another one got caught today, it's all over the papers. "Teenager Areested in Computer Crime Scandal", "Hacker Arrested after Bank Tampering"....Damn kids. They're all alike. But did you , in your three-piece psychology and 1950's technobrain, ever take a look behind the eyes of the hacker? Did you ever wonder what made him tick, what forces shaped him, what may have molded him? I am a hacker, enter my world...Mine is a world that begins with school... I'm in junior high or high school. I've listened to teachers expain for the fifteenth time how to reduce a fraction. I understand it "No, Ms. Smith, I didn't show my work. I did it in my head..." Damn kid . Probably copied it. They're all alike. I made a discovery today. I found a computer. Wait a second, this is cool. It does what I want it to. If it makes a mistake, it's because i screwed it up. Not because it doesn't like me... Or feels threatened by me.. Or thinks I'm a smart ass... Or doesn't like teaching and shouldn't be here... Damn kid. All he does is play games. They're all alike. And then it happened... a door opened to a world... rushing through the phone line like heroin through an addict's veins, an electronic pulse is sent out, a refuge from the day-to-day incompetencies is sought... a board is found. "This is it... this is where I belong... "I know everyone here... even if I've never met them, never talked to them, may never hear from them again... I know you all... Damn kid. Tying up the phone line again. They're all alike... you bet you ass we're all alike... we've been spoon- fed baby food at school when we hungered for steak.. the bits of meat that you did let slip through were pre-chewed and tasteless. We've been dominated by sadists, or ignored by the apathetic. The few that had something to teach found us willing pupils, but those few are like drops of water in the desert. This is our world now... the world of the electron and the switch, the beauty of the baud. We make use of a service already existing without paying for what could be dirt-cheap if it wasn't run by profiterring gluttons, and you call us criminals. We explore... and you call us criminals. We seek after knowledge.. and you call us criminals. We exist without skin color, without nationality, without religious bias...and you call us criminals? Yes, I am a criminal. My crime is that of curiosity.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Scops: A Living History A scop is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "an Old English poet or minstrel." However, scops were simply so much more than that to the medieval world. They were the only means of entertainment for the people of the time. There was no television or Internet to escape to, and books were not readily available. Most medieval people in the eighth through twelfth centuries could not read or write,so the scops would tell amusing stories or tales of heroic deeds to the music of their harps. The stories would be chanted, giving great honor to those mentioned in the oral recitations, and the scop's song also provided a memory of the culture for those who would come after. According to Kemp Malone, Ã¢â¬Å"At an early date Germanic kings began to keep professional poets.Ã¢â¬ (p.75) These scops would travel the kingdom, telling their stories and singing their songs. They would have a harp or later a lute; these were the tools of their trade. Creating worlds and places many Anglo- Saxons never saw because few people ever left the place they were born, scops were important fixtures to the medieval world. The scops opened up the outside world to medieval people and engaged the imagination too. In Beowulf, scops are mentioned in recounting BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s deeds and amusing the men in the mead- halls. Like courtly fools, they would make their audience laugh. However, unlike the fools or court jesters, a scop was not there merely to entertain. They were a living history of the times and places of the past and present. Their ability to memorize many lines of poetry or stories has kept them alive throughout the ages so that we still have them today. The stories were sometimes embellished and altered to be more interesting to the listeners. For example, in Beowulf, there is the story of our hero fighting sea monsters as he swims across an ocean and spending seven days and night in the cold sea. Ã¢â¬Å"The WandererÃ¢â¬ is a tale that mostly likely would have been recited by a scop. The stories that the scops would tell often were elegies for the heroic dead.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
It is hard to face the truth but still read the whole letter to know the REAL sujatha and do not tear the letter in the middle of it just because you think you know the whole truth. You called my mom a person who gives importance to money, you who gave your own children telugu medium education because it is cheaper that way, i am feeling strange that i used to give respect to such a dim-witted person, such a person who is hell bent on levelling false allegations shamelessly on his own daughter. You would not have been alive today had my mom not come to your rescue every time your spoiled brats created a scene, she just thought she was helping her ageing parents, little did she know that her MONEY MINDED PARENTS would think of the favours as a method to please them to take money from them. Only low class people can think so cheaply. There are such people who expect money from their parents and even then their parents try to cover their daughter's misdeeds and here we have a great gentleman who thinks that her daughter is after his money and and is leaving no stone unturned to ensure that it does not happen by accusing her of things she never did, hello who wants your money? We have enough money to look after ourselves and are not expecting a single pie from you, get that right into your head. My mom always pitied thinking of the future of her brothers' children and never let a chance go by in helping them financially, all without your knowledge. She would be the first one to be happy if they come to a financially stable position, how did you even think that she wanted your money? By the time you read this you will have known that she cares a damn for your money as she returns all that you have given her. So you have been tolerating my mom for the past 12 years, is it? on the other hand she has been tolerating the insult meted to her by your daughters-in-law and yet never stopped coming to your house just to see her parents, the same parents who have been noting down the number of jars broken by her by mistake, how cheap? i wonder if people can ever stoop to lower levels. You have been keeping the accounts of all these insignificant things and how well you acted to be happy
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Ã The Director of the European Interior Components Product Line Team of Morgan Components Company, Sean OÃ¢â¬â¢Fearna is facing a difficult decision. He needs to respond to the price reduction request on a door panel project, which would take-off in six months. The initial contract was signed at a price of 90 euros between Asiacar and Plasticom. Morgan Components took ownership of the contract, as it acquired the Clondalkin plant of Plasticom. The project was seen infeasible by Morgan Components executives, even before the price reduction. Therefore, first a unit based cost breakdown analysis was applied. It was observed that with the current production processes, the minimum price that Morgan Components could afford was 80 euros. Then the possible process improvements and cost reduction alternatives were analyzed and redesigning the door panel to reduce its features was identified as a must. The other two alternatives of reducing scrap and in-house production of X-27 had their own shortcomings like high initial investments and going against company policies, and therefore should only be applied if the price was restricted to very low levels. (e.g. at 73 euros Alternative of reducing features should be supported by reducing scrap to maintain profitability. For all the price levels below 72 euros, all three measures should be taken) Then, the auto industry was analyzed with regards to the purchasing regimes in the first years of a new launched product. The outcome was that even a failure product driven to market by Asiacar would necessitate Asiacar to buy at least 30,000 units of door panels in total. (A moderate success would result in the purchase of 100,000 to 200,000 units and a real success would take the sales number of Morgan Components up to 300,000 units.) In the light of this analysis a comparison of worst case scenarios were made. The result showed that even in the worst case scenario of going on with the Asiacar contract, Morgan Components would be better off than canceling the contract. Moreover, a series of arguments were prepared for Sean OÃ¢â¬â¢Fearna to present his seniors within Morgan Components to convince them on this argument andÃ get permission to go on with Asiacar contract. Financial situation and the diversification policy of Morgan Components, under capacity production of the Clondalkin Plant and the importance of Asiacar as a client were among these. Then a price range was provided to Sean OÃ¢â¬â¢Fearna before his negotiations with Asiacar. He should keep the price at a level between 75 to 81 euros not to forgo the contract, while maintaining profitability. To be able to achieve this, the credibility of the Japanese supplier threat was argued and the risk of changing suppliers for Asiacar was quantified as 5 to 7 euros. Besides, counting on the fact that Clondalkin had the rights to redesign the door panels for Europe up to now, and Asiacar had already invested 2 million to Clondalkin redesigns, the Japanese threat was further diluted. However, these arguments would not mean much without Sean being able to put them clearly on the table during negotiations. Therefore a clear negotiation action plan was outlined in order for Sean to persuade Asiacar to carry on with the contract at a price level of 78, which would reduce the risk on Morgan Components and may even provide a profit of 1.8 million euros in the best case scenario, while, on the other hand, providing Asiacar a savings potential of 3.6 million euros. Problem Statement & Alternatives The main problem Sean OÃ¢â¬â¢Fearna is facing in the Morgan Components Case Study is that he needs to give a response to the 25% price reduction request of Asiacar. This reduction is requested on a door panel contract, for which some investments are already made and the process is to be started in six months. Sean is concerned about the potential losses that may arise after this price reduction, and the potential risks of canceling the whole contract. First of all Sean needs to decide on whether to carry on with the contract or cancel it right away, analyzing the cost structure of the door panels. Moreover, he may need to choose a way to modify his production processes toÃ reduce his costs. Afterwards, if he decides to carry on with the contract, he will need to decide on a minimum price that he may afford and come up with a price range, mutually acceptable for both Asiacar (AC) and Morgan Components (MC). Since Sean himself is not in a position in the organizational structure of MC to decide on such a critical issue all by himself, he will need to discuss the upcomings with his own superiors, before starting a negotiation with AC. In this context, he has to identify the strengths of his arguments that he should draw on during his dialogues with both MC executives and AC representatives. Criteria: All the decisions Sean needs to take are constrained in five main criteria, all of which will be taken into consideration to provide a framework for the analysis. First of all is the risk of canceling the contract right away. Since some investments has already been made and considering the Clondalkin Plant running with 60% capacity currently, quitting the contract will require firing some workers and in total incurring a non-recoverable loss of 3 million euros. Second important aspect is the profitability of the AC contract. Taking into account the potential risks contained within the structure of the contract, the cost structure of the door panel production should be re-analyzed to determine the maximum potential profit and potential losses that may occur at the end of the contract period. Third criterion is the MC organizational structure and corporate strategy. The organizational structure will affect the decisive ability of Sean himself and the possibility of that a certain modification in the cost allocation structure of the contract may be applied. Moreover, alternative cost cutting methods should be analyzed with regards to the strategies ofÃ the company. The fourth key point is AC as a company and its current condition. The relations of MC with AC and the significance of AC to MC as a strategic client have important impact on the decisions of both Sean and the senior management of MC, who are seeking for diversification. Furthermore, the Japanese Supplier threat put forward by AC should be analyzed in the context of AC being in weak financial situation and currently running a revival plan. Finally, Sean and his relationship with the Clondalkin Plant and the Clondalkin town should regularly be considered during analysis, in the sense that he may not yet be able to think unbiased from MCÃ¢â¬â¢s side, since he has worked for long years at Clondalkin before MC bought the plant. Analyses of Alternatives in the Framework of Relevant Criteria: 1. To carry on with Asiacar contract or to cancel it right away The first issue to observe before making this decision for Sean is to figure out the losses the company is going to face. It is clearly stated in the case that the company is going to lose 3 million euros if the contract is cancelled now. So, Sean needs to check the alternative of going on with the contract and analyze the profitability of it, in order to make a net comparison. To have a better judgment of the profitability of the door panel contract, Sean first needs to analyze the costing methods of Plasticom and MC. He needs to spot out the Two main differences are in the labor costs and the corporate overheads. Assuming that wages might have been increased after the factory was bought by MC in order to increase motivation and gain worker loyalty. Moreover, since the wages might as well rise in the following five year contract period, the increased labor cost approach seems conservative, but logical. On the other hand, the corporate overheads are only an allocated portion of MC headquartersÃ¢â¬â¢ costs; they have no direct relation with this contract alone and do not affect the potential positive cashÃ flows. As Sean convinced MC executives not to consider the corporate overheads to carry on with the project before, they definitely will not be included in the analyses for such a critical decision of canceling the contract. The next step in the analysis of costs should be to decide whether AC is going to buy 300,000 units in the following five years and how the purchases will be distributed over years. It can be certainly understood from SeanÃ¢â¬â¢s doubts, that in the AC contract thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no restriction for AC to buy 300,000 door panels. Also, big manufacturing companies tend to transfer market risks on to the supplier as a procurement strategy. It is often the case that if the product of a main company does not sell in the market, it is the supplier who suffers because of not being able to compensate initial investments. Therefore, it is crucial to analyze costs on per-unit base and to carefully differentiate variable costs and fixed costs. Exhibit-1 shows the recommended cost structure per unit door panel. The reason that indirect labor, maintenance and factory overheads were incurred as variable is that these costs tend to change with the volume of production and would disappear if there were not door panel production. Even factory overheads are allocated on to projects according to production volumes. So, it is obvious from Exhibit-1 that Sean cannot afford to carry on with the contract at a price of 68 euros per panel unless a cost reduction in the production process is made. Then, the decision of going on with the contract depends on the next decision step, which is; 2. To choose which alternative cost reduction methods to implement Sean has three alternative ways to reduce production costs of door panels. First of which, Ã¢â¬â now on to be called Alternative-1 Ã¢â¬â is to reduce the features of the panel design. Alternative-2 is to reduce scrap and Alternative-2 is to produce X-27 in-house. All possible combinations and outcomes of these process improvements are given in Exhibit-2. As it is seen, the Alternatives 2 and 3 are inefficient to reduce the cost below the 68-euro level. Their effect is more adequate when combined withÃ Alternative-1. On the other hand, the Alternatives 2 and 3 bring some shortcomings with them. First of all, Alternative-3 requires a non-strategic component to be manufactured in-house and may cause a supplier to go out of business. This is both against two critical criteria; MC corporate policies and SeanÃ¢â¬â¢s relations with Clondalkin. Moreover, both Alternative 2 and 3 require an increase of initial investments. This increases the risk undertaken by MC with regards to the fact that the amount of purchase and its distribution over the years is ambiguous. Exhibit-3 presents possible procurement regimes that may be followed by AC according to the success level of their new car model. A summary of Exhibit-3 may be that while a successful or moderately successful model would create a purchase of over 100,000 units of panels, the failure of AC would mean sales of below 100,000 units for MC, but particularly not below 30,000. This analysis enables us to compare worst-case scenarios and make a distinct comparison between canceling the contract and going on with it. Exhibit-4 demonstrates this comparison. According to this, it is clear that even if ACÃ¢â¬â¢s new model is a failure, MC would be better off by continuing with the contract with minimum condition of implementing cost reduction Alternative-1 is met. Sean should do everything he can to keep this contract, in order to minimize ClondalkinÃ¢â¬â¢s losses. 3. Affordable Price Range and the Effect of Price on Cost Reduction Alternatives Graph at Exhibit-5 illustrates the variation in breakeven points of the AC contract with different cost reduction alternatives at different price levels. This graph is essential in several ways: First, the minimum affordable price for MC is 72 euros, assuming that it is the probability to sell more than 300,000 units with this contract is very low. It also reveals the cons and pros of the alternative cost reduction methods. For example, if the price level is restricted to a level of 72 euros or below by AC, then the trade-offs of Alternatives 2 & 3 are less important compared to theÃ profitability increase they bring and both should be implemented immediately. If a price of 73 euros may be negotiated with AC, then the implementation Alternative-3 may be postponed or completely dropped due to its shortcomings and only Alternative 1 and 2 would be enough together to bring MC to a breakeven at 300,000 units. At even higher price levels, alternatives 2 and 3 lose their significance and MC may carry on the contract only with Alternative-1. However, can the price reduction request of 25% be negotiated with Asiacar? Is the Japanese threat credible? What are the arguments and strengths that Morgan Components has in hand to increase the requested price to a higher level? How important is this contract and the relationships with Asiacar for both Morgan Components and Sean himself? All these questions and more need to be answered in order to come up with a down to earth action plan that can be applied immediately to get Sean and Morgan Components out of this situation without any significant losses. Synthesis: In the light of the analysis made, my recommendation for Sean OÃ¢â¬â¢Fearna is to go on with the Asiacar contract with whatever means possible. This outcome is also supported by the criterion of SeanÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Clondalkin plant. He, having a strong reputation within Clondalkin, would not want to put the plant at risk by continuing at a capacity of 60% and not making decent profits. On the other hand, considering the organizational structure of Morgan Components, Sean is not at a position to take such a critical decision on his own. He needs to convince the senior executives of Morgan Components about carrying on with the contract. However, at this point, his strong relations with Clondalkin my turn out to be a disadvantage for him. Morgan Components executives, knowing SeanÃ¢â¬â¢s strong tie to Clondalkin may respond to this proposal biased. Therefore, Sean needs to support his arguments with fact, especially the data presented in the exhibits of this report, which clearly show that canceling the contract brings the worst possible outcome. Moreover, Sean must emphasize on the corporate vision of Morgan Components. Being 80% dependent on only one firm and being very eager about their diversification policy, creating new businesses with Asiacar has high importance of Morgan Components. Asiacar is not a completely new client for Morgan Components and the three plants of Plasticom were acquired by Morgan Components mainly to increase businesses with Asiacar. When compared to the 1.2 billion euro sales size of Morgan, the 27 million euro potential of this contract may seem small at first sight. However, at this crucial period where Morgan is trying to minimize its losses by all means, letting Asiacar down with this contract would put both current and future businesses of Morgan with Asiacar at stake. In addition to that the Asiacar contract will increase the capacity usage of the Clondalkin plant significantly from 60% to 90%. Clarifying all these critical aspects should get Sean the necessary permissions to start negotiations with Asiacar to continue business with them. The next step for Sean should be to analyze the possibility of negotiating the requested price of 68 euros with Asiacar. Greatest threat for Morgan Components is the possibility that Asiacar may transfer its supply to a Japanese supplier, which is currently supplying door panels for the Japanese version of the same Asiacar model. Nevertheless, if the nature of automotive industry is analyzed, it will be seen that most of the main manufacturers apply Just-In-Time production procedures, or even if not, they try to minimize their inventory by pressurizing suppliers with tight deadlines and minimum delivery lots. Supplying from Japan to a manufacturer in UK, other than bringing an additional logistics cost of 4 euros, is extremely risky for the manufacturer in the sense that it may increase lead-times and cause inventory pile-ups. Although it is difficult to quantify such a risk, SeanÃ¢â¬â¢s target price during his negotiations with Asiacar should definitely be higher than 72 euros. In that case, what should be the target price for Sean during his negotiations with the Asiacar representatives? Looking at Exhibit-3 again, aiming a price that would breakeven at 300,000 units is far too risky forÃ Morgan Components. On the contrary, trying to achieve a profit even if AsiacarÃ¢â¬â¢s new product fails would be too opportunistic and may cause an unpleasant response of direct change of supplier on the Asiacar side. Therefore, targeting a price range that would arrive at a breakeven at moderate success would be my suggestion. This price range may be deducted from Exhibit-5, and falls between 75 euros and 81 euros. Furthermore, the Clondalkin plant contains a key advantage regarding the Asiacar contract. Clondalkin is not a just a plant that is to produce a given design; Asiacar has provided Clondalkin the initial design and the redesign of the door panel and the necessary adaptations of the design for the European market is carried by the Clondalkin plant. Why is this issue so important? Because of the two vital criteria for Asiacar: Time restrictions and the necessary initial investments. First of all, there are only eight months left for the product launch of Asiacar, which is on May 2005. This means that the first samples of the door panels for the try-outs should be delivered to Asiacar at the latest by January 2005. Thus, the new supplier needs to redesign the product for European Markets, produce the mold, and start the production within 6 months. Would Asiacar take such big risk? Besides, Asiacar has provided 2 million euros of a total of 5 million euro investment on the redesign of the door panels. Now Asiacar has two possible option, which I recommend Sean to emphasize clearly during the negotiations: Asiacar is either going to provide the remaining 3 million euros and wait until Clondalkin completes the molds and then transfer them to Japan, or come down to accept a mutual agreement for with Morgan Components In order to be able to build on this argument without being offensive, my recommendation is that Sean should follow such an action plan: First he should mention that Morgan Components wants to support the revival plan of Asiacar and ready for sacrificing to an extent to maintain a sustainable relationship. However he should stress on the fact that pressurizing Morgan Components for a price reduction to 68 euros would result in the shut down of the whole company. He should support this by the data provided in Exhibit-6, which is the re-structured version of the cost breakdown inÃ Exhibit-1. Exhibit-6 will show Asiacar that below 81 euros, Morgan Components will theoretically not make profits for this contract. Moreover, reducing the price down to 81 euros would mean a potential saving of 2.7 million euros for Asiacar. He should also underline the risks and additional costs of working with a Japanese supplier and mention that a 68 euro price from a Japanese supplier would mean the ex act same cost to Asiacar to buy the panels at a 73 euro price from Morgan. Setting his minimum and maximum clearly to 73 and 81 euros, then Sean may start releasing the handles again. Depending on the reactions of the Asiacar representative, he may restate the importance of being an Asiacar supplier for Morgan Components and approach with the favor of going below 81 euros with the following conditions being guaranteed: More future contracts starting form 2005 and the renegotiation of the door panel prices at the end of 2005. Even after that, if Asiacar keeps insisting on very low price levels, the issue of having the current design in hand and having already expended the 2 million design fund should be raised, but without being offensive or destructive. The objective must be keeping the price in range of 75 to 81 euros. If Sean may apply my recommendation completely, he should come out of the Asiacar negotiations, with a price of around 78 euros. Having this price settled and implementing a redesign on the panel to reduce features (Cost Reduction Alternative-1), Morgan Components may expect a profit of nearly 1.8 million euros within the next five years, if the project is a complete success. Moreover, since the initial investments will be recovered after 170,000 units, the risk will be also minimized. Within very tight deadlines and such stressful conditions, following such a structured action plan may not be very easy for Sean OÃ¢â¬â¢Fearna to apply, however, with the above given key points in mind he should be able to achieve the outcome to save his professional reputation, Clondalkin PlantÃ¢â¬â¢s future and moreover, to provide a decent profit for his new company, MorganÃ Components.
Friday, August 16, 2019
In the context of this essay conspiracies will be defined where a proposed explanation E is a conspiracy theory if and only if E is a proposed causal explanation of an event (or set of events) which postulates secret plans and actions on the part of the group and E conflicts with the official story (or stories) of the same historical events. In this instance the official story will be defined where an explanation of an event E is an official story if and only if the explanation is a theory endorsed in a conventionally recognized way by an individual or institution that bears the relevant legal responsibility for events of type E, and for providing information to the public about them. In some cases conspiracies are morally permissible however usually they are the result of nefarious motivations on the part of the conspirators. In this essay I will use the examples of the Watergate scandal and the September 11 terrorist attacks to explain how in this respect conspiracy theorizing is more often morally permissible due to the just motivations of the conspiracy theorizers and the benefits conspiracy theorizing lends to our society. It is common knowledge that governments and political bodies around the world have engaged in conspiracies. A well known example of this is the Watergate scandal which occurred during the presidency of Richard Nixon. The Watergate scandal took place in the Watergate complex in Washington DC on the 17th of July 1972. The complex was the site of the Democratic National Committee headquarters where five men were found breaking and entering. All the men were connected to President NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s Committee to Re-elect the President. This prompted an investigation which discovered many more illegal activities connected to President NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s staff including campaign fraud, political espionage and sabotage, illegal break-ins, improper tax audits, illegal wiretapping, and a Ã¢â¬Å"launderedÃ¢â¬ slush fund used to pay those who conducted these operations. In this case the conspiracy was indeed the result of nefarious motivations on the part of President Nixon and his staff. While many and possibly most conspiracies are the result of similar motivations not all conspiracies are malevolent. For instance a conspiracy may (though perhaps not legally) be benevolent when the conspirators are acting in a way to protect the interests of the people. Reasons for this could be to prevent a counterproductive panic caused by revealing their plans before they are ready. Another conspiracy that would be both benevolent and responsible on behalf of the government would be conspiring to keep their nation ignorant of particular military actions in order to protect both the soldiers and the population that they govern. This would be the most responsible action on behalf of the government as it is their role to protect the people as best they can, in this case by way of a conspiracy. Although it is conceivable that there are some benevolent conspiracies where conspirators are trying to benefit society I think it holds true that the majority of conspiracies are caused by conspirators with nefarious intentions. It is obvious from conspiracies and cover ups like the Watergate scandal that conspiracies do take place (if not commonly) and so it follows that logically the existence of conspiracies altogether cannot be denied and furthermore it is irrational to disbelieve the existence of conspiracy theories. With this in mind it seems both reasonable and logical to conclude that conspiracy theorizing is a rational and possibly beneficial part of society. Steve Clarke supports this in Ã¢â¬Å"Conspiracy Theories and Conspiracy Theorizing (2002)Ã¢â¬ by proposing that Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëthe conspiracy theorist challenges us to improve our social explanationsÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ whereby he means that conspiracy theorists are invaluable to society as their existence pressures epistemic authorities such as the government to be careful in its practices and to ensure their ventures are kept above board. Clarke also reminds us that occasionally Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëthe conspiracy theorist identifies a genuine conspiracy. Ã¢â¬â¢ In contrast to Clarke, critics of conspiracy theorizing claim theorists cause unrest amongst society as they damage the trust between governments and their citizens. This is due to the way in which conspiracy theories often portray the government and government officials as being nefarious and underhanded in their dealings thus weakening the trust between society and the government. Similarly critics claim that conspiracy theorists create unrest amongst society by fostering negative beliefs about the government and the causes of historical events. Critics of conspiracy theorizing propose that unwarranted conspiracy theories have the potential to cause undesirable and harmful results. This is illustrated well by Mark Fenster in Ã¢â¬Å"Conspiracy Theories: Secrecy and Power in American Culture (2008)Ã¢â¬ where he postulates that Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëleft critics argue that proper political analysis leads directly to effective political activity. Identifying both the general and historically specific economic and political structures that dominate enables activists to organize protests strategically and to build collective, alternative institutions in order to effect real social change. Conspiracy theory, on the other hand, either misattributes dominance to individuals, or simplistically places the blame for the ills of the world on individuals rather than on underlying, structural causes. As a result, it cannot lead to effective political activity; rather, it leads to harmful scapegoating; or it misleads activists into thinking that merely removing an individual or a secret group will transform society. Ã¢â¬ Arguments such as this are the cause of moral debate around conspiracy theorizing. The attacks on the Twin Towers, the 7 World Trade Centre building and the Pentagon in New York City and Washington D.Ã C in America on September the 11th 2001 became a catalyst for many highly publicized conspiracy theories. These conspiracy theories argue against the official story which states that the attacks were carried out solely by Al-Qaeda -a militant Islamic organization headed by Osama Bin Laden. The official story proposes that four commercial passenger airlines were hijacked by 19 members of Al-Qaeda. Two planes, American Airlines flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 were hijacked and flown in a suicide mission into the north and south towers of the World Trade Centre in New York City. Both of these towers collapsed within 2 hours due to structural damage caused by fires from the initial plane crash. The third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was flown into the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense in the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia. This caused parts of the western side of the pentagon to collapse. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was intended to be flown into the Capitol of the United States, Washington D. C but instead crashed into a field in Pennsylvania when passengers attempted to gain control of the plane. One of the most noteworthy conspiracy theories regarding the September 11 attacks states that the collapse of the Twin Towers and 7 World Trade Center was caused by controlled demolition on the behalf of the United States government as opposed to the structural damage caused by fire which was quoted in the official story. Many physicists, architects and other intellectuals argue that the impact from the aircraft and the resulting fires could not have weakened the buildings to the extent which could cause them to completely collapse. Instead, conspiracy theorists posit that explosives were installed in the building on behalf of the government prior to the attacks. According to conspiracy theorists there is much errant data to support this such as accounts of people hearing explosions in the lobby while trying to escape the building. High profile conspiracy such as those pertaining to the September 11 terrorist attacks serve the well-being of society. They help to regulate the governments actions. Conspiracy theories are invaluable in keeping an honest government that is pressured to act within the law -especially if the government is aware that their citizens may question the official story. Governments have the capability to be respected leaders for the people or sources of harm, in a society where conspiracy theories have the ability to become such widespread public knowledge (such as the conspiracy theories surrounding the September 11 terrorist attacks) they ensure that the government remains working for the citizens as they are prepared to be scrutinized. In this way conspiracy theorizing is extremely beneficial to society which makes conspiracy theorizing morally justifiable. Another way in which conspiracy theorizing is beneficial to society is the how it encourages citizens to think for themselves in a way that otherwise they may not. Conspiracy theorizing allows individuals to challenge the official story rather than mindlessly believing stories that have been spoon fed to them by the relevant epistemic authorities and the media. Conspiracy theorizing also offers alternative explanations than the official stories such as arguments based on facts to consider rather than the stories spoon fed to them by the government. The media is an important tool for the conspiracy theorist, in most western countries the press has liberty to publish conspiracy theories and there are even some magazines such as the Ã¢â¬Å"ScepticÃ¢â¬ magazine which is available worldwide. The freedom of the media aids the governments awareness that they could very publicly be caught out in a conspiracy. Being caught amongst a conspiracy would be tragic for any democratic government since they would lose so much public support which is necessary as one of the most important things to them is being re-elected. Because governments need public support so much they would indeed be very careful about the conspiracies attempted under their power. While most conspiracies are prompted by nefarious motivations the same is not true for conspiracy theories. I believe the key to the morality of either are the intentions of the conspirators or the theorists, regardless of the outcome. The varying morality of conspiracy theorizing and even conspiracies themselves can be explained by the doctrine of double effect. This doctrine states that an action that results in harm is morally permissible if it is the side effect of a morally good initiative. The doctrine proposes that if doing something intended to be morally good has a morally bad consequence as a side-effect then it is ethically permissible on the condition that the morally bad side-effect wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t intended even if it was foreseen to probably happen. An important feature of the doctrine states that the good result must be brought about independent of the bad one, the bad result must not be the means to the good result. To assist in helping my point about the difference in moral permissibility I will use the following hypothetical example: There is a large munitions factory set to be bombed by a bomber pilot. The pilot knows the munitions factory is next to an orphanage and that as a result of bombing the munitions factory a collateral of 2,000 civilian casualties are predicted. However bombing the munitions factory will defeat the enemy and protect other lives. I contend that the actions of the bomber may be morally permissible. However, if I alter the case just slightly: A bomber pilot is set to bomb a munitions factory. The pilot knows that the munitions factory is next to an orphanage and that 2,000 civilian casualties are predicted. In fact, bombing the munitions factory is the fastest and easiest way to cause such a number of casualties and this is why the bomber has chosen to bomb the factory. This will weaken the enemyÃ¢â¬â¢s esolve with the side-effect of getting rid of their munitions factory. I contend that in this instance the bomberÃ¢â¬â¢s action is obviously morally impermissible. Though this example seems unrelated to conspiracies and conspiracy theorizing it illustrates how the motivation behind an action deems its status of morality. In the case of conspiracy theorizing, a moral conspiracy theory would be one where the theorist truly believes they have uncovered a nefarious conspiracy and that by exposing it to the public they would be greatly benefitting society. The doctrine of double effect would apply for instance in the following two cases: In the first scenario Mandy notices lots of errant data regarding actions made by the government. Adding this data up Mandy believes she has unravelled a nefarious and underhanded scheme by government officials. Mandy truly believes that citizens ought to be aware of this conspiracy and that publicizing her conspiracy theory is in societyÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest. Mandy knows that her theory negatively implicates many government officials and could be very harmful if she turns out to be wrong. In this case, regardless of whether or not MandyÃ¢â¬â¢s claims turn out to be true her initial motivations were for the good of society. This is similar to the first scenario of the pilot bombing the munitions factory in that the bad result is just a side-effect of the morally good intention. I propose that in this way conspiracy theorizing can be morally just and in the cases where the theorist is proven correct society is reminded of the benefits of conspiracy theorizing. In the second case Mandy, who has been fired from her position in government administration notices the same errant data. Mandy links this data together and formulates a conspiracy theory which negatively implicates her previous superiors. While Mandy in this scenario may also have the intentions of publicizing her conspiracy theory in order to make people aware of a nefarious scheme on the part of the government, she is still motivated by the thought of harming the reputation of her previous superiors. In this case the doctrine states that MandyÃ¢â¬â¢s actions were morally wrong as the morally wrong result was not a side effect of the morally good action. Rather, the morally wrong result of harming her previous superiors was one f the two intended concequences so in this case conspiracy theorizing would be morally wrong. Even though the two scenarios may have the same consequence it is the difference in motivation that alters the moral permissibility. I postulate that this is the same for all conspiracy theories, this means that when motivated by the intention to benefit society conspiracy theorizing is morally permissible. In the case of the September 11 terrorist attacks the moral permissibility of conspiracy theories surrounding the event depend on the intentions of the conspiracy theorists. If the intentions of the theorist are to benefit society by making us aware of a nefarious conspiracy surrounding the government of the United States then I propose that conspiracy theorizing would be morally justifiable. Though the United States government is portrayed to be nefarious and underhanded in this conspiracy theory if this is not the intended result of the conspiracy theorist but a negative side-effect brought about by the good action then conspiracy theorizing in this instance would remain morally justified. However, if the intention of the conspiracy theorist was to undermine the government by weakening the trust between them and their citizens then I conclude that conspiracy theorizing for this purpose (despite any morally good side-effects) is morally unjust. As I have shown clearly in my essay there are many situations in which conspiracy theorizing is a moral good. It is obvious that conspiracy theorizing is beneficial to our society as it pressures the government to work for the well-being of their citizens as they are prepared to be scrutinized. Conspiracy theorizing is also morally justified by the benefits it lends to individuals freedom of speech as well as the freedom of the press. As I have explained in this essay, the doctrine of double effect illustrates how the moral permissibility of conspiracy theorizing often rests upon each conspiracy theorists motivations. I conclude that while most conspiracies are the results of nefarious motivations the same is not true for conspiracy theorizing, instead conspiracy theorists are often motivated to benefit society in some way or another and in these cases their conspiracy theorizing is morally justifiable.