Monday, September 30, 2019
Newell Company created corporate advantages by following the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and philosophy. The philosophy Ã¢â¬Å"Build on what we do bestÃ¢â¬ was started by CEO Mr. Dan Ferguson. This philosophy can be described as Newell focus on selling multiproduct to large mass retailers with high-volume and low-cost. Their mission is Ã¢â¬Å"Newell is a manufacturer and full-service marketer of consumer products for serving the needs of volume purchasers.Ã¢â¬ The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy and mission has a great influence on its strategies. Newell creates various strategies to accomplish the company mission. For example, one of NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s key strategies is serving the mass retailer. The strategy of acquisition helps to improve manufacturing processes in order to get high-volume and low cost product. NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies align with its philosophy and mission. It can create corporate advantages in the industry. Moreover, the basic strategy of total Newell strategy is t hat Ã¢â¬Å"merchandise a multi-product offering of brand-name staple consumers products, with an emphasis on excellent customers service, in order to achieve maximum results for our stockholdersÃ¢â¬ . The acquisition Rubbermaid and Calphalon enhanced NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s strength in terms of merchandise multiproduct offering and rise NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s brand popularity. However, with negative feedback of RubbermaidÃ¢â¬â¢s customers, RubbermaidÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy of customer services could not alignment with NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and basic strategy that lead to a negative influence on shareholder satisfactions. Even though CalphalonÃ¢â¬â¢s competitor Meyer have the lower price than Calphalon, Caphalon is for the younger and more fashion oriented market which is not efficient to use the low cost strategy for the high-end product, because Newell maybe unable to match the cost structure of the firm operating with less overhead and fewer product lines. According to the Newell acquision experience, NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy is to acquire and integrate business which is nonfashion product, to acquire the company for the fashion ortiented market is Acquisition NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy was to grow and expand their product line. In our opinion, the company is focused on more acquisition strategy than organic growth which represents the true growth for the core of the company. This excludes any growth acquired from takeovers, acquisitions or mergers. Newell acquired different companies in the basics home and hardware products since 1996 (exhibit 3). According to Mergers and Acquisition article, acquisition benefits the company by increasing CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s value and market power. Two companies together will generate synergy that improves revenue and cost saving of the company. Furthermore, acquisition can create shareholder value as well because two companies together are more valuable than two separate companies. Newell and acquiring companies benefit in many ways from the acquisition. such as, development capabilities. The acquisitions allow Newell to add more products to its products line. It creates complement capabilities which two different abilities of the companies which fit well together. As the result, Newell is able to offer differentiated products of the same category to suit different customers. Moreover, in transferring its technologies to the acquiring companies, Newell has a technology advance such as EDI. The company is able to deliver products according to retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s request, making it more efficient, and improving its reputation as a Ã¢â¬Å"Good ShipperÃ¢â¬ . After acquisition, Newell transfers its technology to acquiring companies in order to deliver the products in an efficient way. Acquiring companies learn new technologies from Newell and they both are able to develop the innovation process. The company put acquiring companies through a process of streamline as known as Ã¢â¬Å"NewellizationÃ¢â¬ . Growth through acquisition is very profitable to NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s corpor ate strategy. Corporate governance Corporate governance is about managing company and defined as the distribution of power in the company. Corporate governance is the system of rules, practices and process by which a company is directed and controlled. Newell corporate structure is made to maintain the flexibility in relations between corporate centers. The corporate office control and coordinate different aspects of a huge corporation working together. For example, the top financial responsibilities were divided between two corporate executivesÃ who respectively take charge of the internal operation and external management. The benefit of company is to make sure the integration for the financial. Normally, there is just one person who takes on the financial responsibility of the company which can lead to accounting fraud. At the same time, the two positions have responsibility to report to the CEO which enhances the supervision to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial situation. In NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s company structure, the group president is one level below the company president. This structure benefits Newell because it centralizes subsidiaries and their operations. This centralization structure forms a unique manage method known as Ã¢â¬Å"NewellizationÃ¢â¬ . Newellization: Newellizaiton is the process of streamlining focused on operational efficiency and profitability. Newell got the opportunity to gain market share through the distribution channel from subsidiaries. Acquisition of CorningÃ¢â¬â¢s housewares business in Europe, which is alignment with part of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of globalization, effectively helped Newell to expand its distribution channels to gain greater the market share in the global market. According to the case article of Ã¢â¬Å"Newell CompanyÃ¢â¬ , there are three categories systems to implement Newellization. The first is the integrated financial system, the second is the sales and order processing system, the third is flexible manufacturing system. Normally, Newell acquired subsidiaries to get more opportunities to gain greater access to distribution channels even though subsidiaries possess low-technology, non-seasonal, non-cyclical, and non-fashion products. Newellization was effectively integrated these companies by implementing systems to make the companies more efficiency and profitability. For example, the successful acquisition implement with Newellization is Anchor Hocking Company. Even though sales revenue of Newell was lower than Anchor HockingÃ¢â¬â¢s sales revenue, but profit margin of Newell was higher than Anchor Hocking. Newellization improved the operational efficiency to manage the cost which is efficiency capability to the company. Newell dismissed the high-level Anchor executive, employees, reduced the number of the retail stores, reduced the excess inventory and eliminated the product line. Also, the improved operational efficiency help Anchor Hocking reduced the average length of time needed to fill a customer order which is benefit to increaseÃ the competitive advantage of Anchor Hocking. For Rubbermaid, the Newellization can help the company to deal with the problem on the inefficiency of operation and management. Financial Objectives: In the financial perspective, the first of financial objectives of Newell Company is achieved sales and earnings per share growth averaging 15% per year. However, most of companies were acquired by Newell company are regarded as inefficient on operating. Those acquired companies are manufactured low-technology, non-seasonal, non-seasonal, non-cyclical, non-fashionable products, which have more higher maintains cost in every individual company. Therefore, most of companies have high sales revenue but with high cost that resulting in the less 10% operating margins. After Newell Company made an acquisition, with the consolidation and centralization management, not only bring more profit for Newell Company but also saving more operation cost Also, it is the reason why Newellization is regarded as an efficient operating method by acquisition multiple products. Therefore, the ultimate target is to achieve maximum earning per share (EPS) for Stockholders. Newellization bring a remarkable success for Newell Company, however, with the aggressive of Newellization, the negative business influence show up, such as, in the Exhibit 4, the newell company net sales decrease from 1992 to 1997. According to the article of Ã¢â¬Å"navigating a path to smart GrowthÃ¢â¬ , there are two limits can restrict growth in order to gain maximum growth of company, including financial limits and managerial limits. According to course material of Ã¢â¬Å"merger and acquisitionÃ¢â¬ , the benefit of acquisition for Newell Company is to gather other multiple product strength to increase profit. In details, Newell company can adjust acquainted companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mislead cost structures in order to make all acquisition consistently with Newell efficient and effective management model. For Newell, Calphalon has a good brand which is benefit for Newell to expand their distribution channel. However, Rubbermaid has the bad reputation on the customer service which will influence the reputation of the Ã¢â¬Å"no problemÃ¢â¬ supplier in the industry. At the same time, Putting both Calphalon and Rubbermaid under the same roof of Newell is a great risk for integrate the two companies, because it will be hard for Newell to impletment the Newellization which is the mature and experienced method toÃ integrate the new company they acquired. Resources and Capability One of Newell crucial resources is collecting multiproduct from various industries including hardware, house ware, home furnishings, and office product. In addition, one of NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities comes from the acquisition of other companies. There are example is Newell reward system in 1990; Newell changed its bonusÃ¢â¬â¢s structure by adding a bonus for internal growth on the top of existing return on assets (ROA) goals which facilitated Newell is ability itÃ¢â¬â¢s to increase their accountability capability. The reason why Newell implemented the bonus structure is that new reward system more related to the performance of the company. The Newell University plays an important role for the company by helping which is benefit for the company to increase the strategic unity capability, learning capability and the leadership capability through training the NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s mangers to understanding corporate cultural, focus on core product and profit-orientation. At the same tim e, most of the mid-level executives from other customer goods companies would take the particular management traits before they were accepted by Newell which also build the good foundation for the leadership capacity. Meanwhile, to leverage the resource, Newell deliberately moves managers across the business unites and from the business to the corporate level. This special character for Newell is benefit for the company to increase the efficiency of the resource by the collaboration capacity. Also, McDonough maintained the communication with their major customers to build the relationship which represent NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s strong customer connectivity capacity. According to the competitor for Calphalon of Meyer, Calphalon has the better customer service which is their competitive advantage. Meanwhile, after the acquisition, Newell can share the customer connectivity capability with Calphalon which enhance the NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage. For Newell to acquire Rubbermaid which has good brand equity, and the product innovation capabilityis benefit for adding the different kind of resource for Newell. Even though Rubbermaid have the innovation capabilitywhich is benefit for the Newell Company, the Rubbermaid products are more technologic than Newell products. This acquision might bring Newell high cost on the research and development. Conclusion Calphalon and Rubbermaid acquisition just partially align with corporate strategies. NewellÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is a core purpose of the company that influences to create resources, businesses and organization structure. Many acquisitions fit to corporate strategies enlarge and diversify range of products, but still focus on their core product that low technology, non-seasonal, non-cyclical, non-fashion products. Newellization has a profound influence on Newell growth in terms of managerial, operational, and financial effect, which gathers more capitals from shareholders. Recommendation: 1. To balance between Ã¢â¬Å"NewellizationÃ¢â¬ and protecting the integrity of the Calphalon 2. Use the customer connectivity capabilityto create the good reputation for customer service of Rubbermaid 3. Use part of the Newellization to help Runnermaid to solve the problem of the inefficiency of operation and management 4. Organic growth instead of focuing on the expaning by acquision.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
What are pressure sores? Pressure sores are areas of injured skin and tissue. They are usually caused by sitting or lying in one position for too long. This puts pressure on certain areas of the body. The pressure can reduce the blood supply to the skin and the tissues under the skin. When a change in position doesn't occur often enough and the blood supply gets too low, a sore may form. Pressure sores are also called bedsores, pressure ulcers and decubitus ulcers. What are the symptoms of a pressure sore? There are 4 stages of pressure sores. Symptoms at each stage include the following: Stage 1.The affected skin looks red and may feel warm to the touch. The area may also burn, hurt or itch. In people who have dark skin, the pressure sore may have a blue or purple tint. Stage 2. The affected skin is more damaged in a stage 2 pressure sore, which can result in an open sore that looks like an abrasion or a blister. The skin around the wound may discolored. The area is very painful. St age 3. These types of pressure sores usually have a crater-like appearance due to increased damage to the tissue below the skin's surface. This makes the wound deeper. Stage 4.This is most serious type of pressure sore. The skin and tissue is severely damaged, causing a large wound. Infection can occur at this stage. Muscles, bones, tendons and joints can be affected by stage 4 pressure sores. Who gets pressure sores? Anyone who sits or lies in one position for a long time might get pressure sores. You are more likely to get pressure sores if you are paralyzed, use a wheelchair or spend most of your time in bed. However, even people who are able to walk can develop pressure sores when they must stay in bed because of an illness or an injury.Some chronic diseases, such as diabetes and hardening of the arteries, make it hard for pressure sores to heal because of poor blood circulation. Peripheral vascular disease,MI, Stroke,Multiple trauma,Musculoskeletal disorders/fractures/contractu res,Gibleed , Spinal cord injury (e. g. , decreased sensory perception, muscle spasms),Neurological disorders (e. g. , Guillain-Barre', multiple sclerosis),Unstable and/or chronic medical conditions (e. g. , diabetes, renal disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure),History of previous ressure ulcer,Preterm neonates, Dementia, Recent surgical patient. Where on the body can you get pressure sores? Pressure sores usually develop over bony parts of the body that don't have much fat to pad them. Pressure sores are most common on the heels and on the hips. Other areas at risk for pressure sores include the base of the spine (tail bone), the shoulder blades, the backs and sides of the knees, and the back of the head. How are pressure sores treated? There are several things you can do to help pressure sores heal: * Relieving the pressure that caused the sore * Treating the sore itself Improving nutrition and other conditions to help the sore heal What can be done to reduce pressure on the sore? Don't lie on pressure sores. Use foam pads or pillows to take pressure off the sore. Special mattresses, mattress covers, foam wedges or seat cushions can help support you in bed or in a chair to reduce or relieve pressure. Try to avoid resting directly on your hip bone when you're lying on your side. Use pillows under one side so that your weight rests on the fleshy part of your buttock instead of on your hip bone. Also, use pillows to keep your knees and ankles apart.When lying on your back, place a pillow under your lower calves to lift your ankles slightly off the bed. When lying in bed, change your position at least every 2 hours. When sitting in a chair or wheelchair, sit upright and straight. An upright, straight position will allow you to move more easily and help prevent new sores. You should change positions every 15 minutes when sitting in a chair or wheelchair. If you cannot move by yourself, have your caregiver help you shift your position. How should the pressure sore be kept clean? In order to heal, pressure sores must be kept clean and free of dead tissue.Stage 1 sores can be cleaned with mild soap and water. You can clean stage 3 sores by rinsing the area with a salt and water solution. The saltwater removes extra fluid and loose material. Your doctor or nurse can show you how to clean your pressure sore. Pressure sores should be kept covered with a bandage or dressing. Sometimes gauze is used. The gauze is kept moist and must be changed at least once a day. Newer kinds of dressings include a see-through film and a hydrocolloid dressing. A hydrocolloid dressing is a bandage made of a gel that molds to the pressure sore and helps promote healing and skin growth.These dressings can stay on for several days at a time. Dead tissue (which may look like a scab) in the sore can interfere with healing and lead to infection. There are many ways to remove dead tissue from the pressure sore. Rinsing the sore e very time you change the bandage is helpful. Special dressings that help your body dissolve the dead tissue can also be used. They are left in place for several days. Another way to remove dead tissue is to put wet gauze bandages on the sore and allow them to dry. The dead tissue sticks to the gauze and is removed when the gauze is pulled off.For more severe pressure sores, dead tissue must be removed surgically. Removing dead tissue and cleaning the sore can hurt. Your doctor can suggest a pain reliever for you to take 30 to 60 minutes before your dressing is changed to help reduce pain. Why is good nutrition important for healing sores? Good nutrition is important because it helps your body heal the sore. If you don't get enough calories, protein and other nutrients (especially vitamin C and zinc, which can help heal wounds like pressure sores), your body won't be able to heal, no matter how well you care for the pressure sore.Your doctor, nurse or a dietitian can give you advice about a healthy diet. Be sure to tell your doctor if you have lost or gained weight recently. What if the sore gets infected? Pressure sores that become infected heal more slowly and can spread a dangerous infection to the rest of your body. If you notice any of the signs of infection listed below, call your doctor right away. Signs of an infected pressure sore include the following: * Thick yellow or green pus * A bad smell from the sore * Redness or warmth around the sore * Swelling around the sore * Tenderness around the soreSigns that the infection may have spread include the following: * Fever * Chills * Mental confusion or difficulty concentrating * Rapid heartbeat * Weakness How are infected pressure sores treated? The treatment of an infected pressure sore depends on how bad the infection is. If only the sore itself is infected, an antibiotic ointment can be put on the sore. When bone or deeper tissue is infected, antibiotics are often required. They can be given intravenous ly (through a needle put in a vein) or orally (by mouth). How can I tell if the sore is getting better? As a pressure sore heals, it slowly gets smaller.Less fluid drains from it. New, healthy tissue starts growing at the bottom of the sore. This new tissue is light red or pink and looks lumpy and shiny. It may take 2 to 4 weeks of treatment before you see these signs of healing. How can pressure sores be prevented? The most important step to prevent pressure sores is to avoid prolonged pressure on one part of your body, especially the pressure points mentioned previously. It's also important to keep your skin healthy. Keep your skin clean and dry. Use a mild soap and warm (not hot) water. Apply moisturizers so your skin doesn't get too dry.If you must spend a lot of time in bed or in a wheelchair, check your whole body every day for spots, color changes or other signs of sores. Pay special attention to the pressure points where sores are most likely to occur. If you smoke, you shou ld quit. People who smoke are more likely to develop pressure sores. Exercise can help improve blood flow, strengthen your muscles and improve your overall health. Talk to your doctor if physical activity is hard for you. He or she can suggest exercises that can work for you, or refer you to physical therapist that can help. Pressure Sore PreventionRelieving pressure: Position must be changed on a regular basis, at least every two hours, and in the very frail at least every hour. Good Diet: A good and balanced diet contributes to healing, as well as avoiding severe nutritional and weight loss Skin Care: Keep the skin clean. Moisture should be minimized. Skin care products should be used that moisturize the skin but do not make it wet or soggy. Use continence aids if a person is unable to control their bladder or bowels. Pads, diapers, convenes or catheterizing. Inspect the skin to see if any redness or breaks in the skin are developing.Use products to relieve and treat pressure sore s; airbeds, foam bed, bed and chair protectors, chair products, continence aids can all contribute to avoiding of bed sores. Clean skin with warm water and minimal friction. Apply lotion often. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Avoid direct pressure to bony areas such as ankles and hips. Use pillows and padded protectors to support arms, legs and vulnerable areas. Change the position of a bed-bound person every two hours. Handle and move carefully to avoid skin tears and scrapes.Change the position of a chair-bound person hourly. Discourage the bed-bound or chair-bound person from sitting with the head elevated more than 30 degrees, except for short periods of time. Check and change bed linens as often as necessary Use continence management products if necessary to reduce exposure to moisture. Padded supports, such as doughnut cushions may, themselves, become a source of pressure. Do not massage bony areas of the body. Do not massage pressure sores. Do not use remedies such as iodine, peroxide and cornstarch that may further irritate the skin.Pressure sores (bedsores, decubitus ulcers, pressure ulcers) are areas of skin damage resulting from a lack of blood flow due to pressure. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sores often result from pressure but may also result from pulling on the skin or friction, particularly over bony areas. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The diagnosis is usually based on a physical examination. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Treatment includes cleansing, removal of pressure from the affected area, special dressings, and, sometimes, surgery. Pressure sores can occur in people of any age who are bedbound, chairbound, or unable to reposition themselves. They are more common among older people.They tend to occur over bony projections where pressure on skin can be concentrated, such as over the hip bones, tailbone, heels, ankles, and elbows. They occur where there is pressure on the skin from a bed, wheelchair, cast, splint, or other hard object . Pressure sores lengthen the time spent in hospitals or nursing homes and increase the cost of care. Pressure sores can be life threatening if they are untreated or if underlying health conditions prevent them from healing. Causes Causes that contribute to the development of pressure sores include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pressure Traction Ã¢â¬ ¢ Friction Ã¢â¬ ¢ Moisture Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inadequate nutrition Pressure on skin, especially when over bony areas, reduces or cuts off blood flow to the skin. If blood flow is cut off for more than 1 or 2 hours, the skin dies, beginning with its outer layer (epidermis). The dead skin breaks down and forms an open sore (ulcer). Most people do not develop pressure sores because they constantly shift position without thinking, even when they are asleep. However, some people cannot move normally and are therefore at greater risk of developing pressure sores.They include people who are paralyzed, comatose, very weak, sedated, or restrained . Paralyzed and comatose people are at particular risk because they also may be unable to move or feel pain (pain normally motivates people to move or to ask to be moved). Traction also reduces blood flow to the skin. Traction occurs when the skin is stretched by being wedged against something or when it sticks to something, often bed linens. When the skin is stretched, the effect is much like pressure. Friction can lead to or worsen pressure sores. Repeated friction may wear away the top layers of skin.Such skin friction may occur if people are pulled repeatedly across a bed. Moisture can increase skin friction and weaken or damage the protective outer layer of skin if the skin is exposed to it a long time. For example, the skin may be in prolonged contact with perspiration, urine, or feces. Inadequate nutrition increases the risk of developing pressure sores and slows the healing process of sores that do develop. Malnourished people may not have enough body fat to pad the skin and bones or to keep the blood vessels from being squeezed shut.Also, skin repair is impaired in people whose diets are deficient in protein, vitamin C, or zinc. Did You KnowÃ¢â¬ ¦? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inadequate nutrition increases the chances of developing pressure sores and slows the healing of sores that do develop. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Repositioning people who cannot move themselves at least every 1 to 2 hours can help prevent pressure sores. Symptoms For most people, pressure sores cause some pain and itching. However, in people whose senses are dulled, even severe sores may be painless. Pressure sores are categorized into four stages according to the severity of damage: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stage I: Redness and inflammation Stage II: Some shallow skin loss, including abrasions, blisters or both Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stage III: Full-thickness skin loss down to the layer of fat. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stage IV: Full-thickness skin loss with exposure of underlying muscle, tendon, or bone Pressure sores do not always progress from mild to severe s tages. Sometimes the first noticeable sign is a late-stage sore. If pressure sores become infected, they may have an unpleasant odor. Pus may be visible in or around the sore. The area around the pressure sore may become red or feel warm, and pain may worsen if the infection spreads to the surrounding skin (causing cellulitis).Infection delays healing of shallow sores and can be life threatening in deeper sores. Infection can even penetrate the bone (osteomyelitis), requiring weeks of treatment with antibiotics. In the most severe cases, infection can spread into the bloodstream (sepsis), causing fever or shaking chills. Spotlight on Aging Aging itself does not cause pressure sores. But it causes changes in tissues that make pressure sores more likely to develop. As people age, the outer layers of the skin thin. Many older people have less fat and muscle, which helps absorb pressure.The number of blood vessels decreases and blood vessels rupture more easily. All wounds, including pr essure sores, heal more slowly. Certain conditions make pressure sores more likely to develop: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Being unable to move normally because of a disorder such as stroke Ã¢â¬ ¢ Having to stay in bed for a long time, for example, because of surgery Ã¢â¬ ¢ Being excessively sleepy (such people are less likely to change position or ask someone to reposition them) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Losing sensation because of nerve damage (such people do not feel discomfort or pain, which would prompt them to change ositions) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Becoming less responsive to what is happening in and around them, including their own discomfort or pain, because of a disorder such as dementia Diagnosis Doctors can usually diagnose pressure sores by doing a physical examination. A doctor or nurse usually measures the size and depth of a sore to determine its stage and plan treatment. If the damage is severe, radionuclide bone scanning or gadolinium-enhanced MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) may be done to check whether infection has spread from the sore to boneÃ¢â¬âa disorder called osteomyelitis.To diagnose osteomyelitis, doctors may need to take a small sample (biopsy) of bone to see if bacteria grow from it (culture). Prevention Prevention is the best strategy for dealing with pressure sores. In most cases, pressure sores can be prevented by meticulous attention from all caregivers, including nurses, nurses' aides, and family members. Close daily inspection of a bedridden or chairbound person's skin can detect early redness or discoloration. Any sign of redness or discoloration at pressure areas is a signal that the person needs to be repositioned and kept from lying or sitting on the discolored area until it returns to normal.Because shifting position is necessary to keep the blood flowing to the skin, oversedation should be avoided and activity encouraged. People who cannot move themselves should be repositioned every 2 hours if they are in bed and every hour if they are in a chairÃ¢â¬âmore often if possible. The skin must be kept clean and dry because moisture increases the risk of developing pressure sores. Dry skin is less likely to stick to fabrics and cause friction or traction. For people confined to bed, sheets should be changed frequently to make sure they are clean and dry.Applying noncaking body powder to skin in areas where two parts of the body press against each other (such as the buttocks and groin) can help keep the skin in these areas dry. Bony projections (such as heels and elbows) can be protected with soft materials, such as foam wedges and heel protectors. Donut-shaped devices and sheepskins should be avoided as they only shift pressure or friction from one vulnerable site to another. Special beds, mattresses, and seat cushions can be used to reduce pressure in people who are wheelchair-bound or bedridden.These products can reduce pressure and offer extra relief. A doctor or nurse can recommend the most appropriate mattress surface or seat cushion. It is important to remember that none of these devices eliminate pressure completely or are a substitute for frequent repositioning. Treatment Treating a pressure sore is much more difficult than preventing one. The main goals of treatment are to relieve pressure on the sores, keep them clean and free of infection, and provide adequate nutrition. Adequate nutrition is important in helping pressure sores heal and in preventing new sores from forming.A well-balanced, high-protein diet is recommended as well as a daily high-potency vitamin and mineral supplement. Supplemental vitamin C and zinc may help with healing as well. Electrical stimulation, heat therapy, massage therapy, and hyperbaric O2 therapy have not proven helpful. In the earliest stage, pressure sores usually heal by themselves once pressure is removed. When the skin is broken, a doctor or nurse considers the location and condition of the pressure sore when recommending a dressing. Film (see-through) dressings help protect ea rly-stage pressure sores and allow them to heal more quickly.Hydrocolloid (oxygen- and moisture-retaining) patches protect, keep the skin appropriately moist, and provide a healthy environment for deep sores. Other types of dressings may be used for deeper sores, those that ooze a lot of fluids, and those that are infected. If the sore appears infected or oozes, rinsing with saline and dabbing gently with a gauze pad are helpful. A doctor may need to remove (debride) dead tissue with a scalpel or a chemical solution. Removal of dead tissue is usually painless, because pain is not felt in dead tissue. Some pain may be felt because healthy tissue is nearby.Health care practitioners may flood (irrigate) the sore, particularly its deep crevices, with a sterile solution to help clean away hidden debris. Sometimes a bed that circulates air (an air-fluidized bed) is used in hospitals and nursing homes. This special bed helps reduce or redistribute pressure on the body. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â ¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Deep pressure sores are difficult to treat. Sometimes they require skin and muscle flaps, in which healthy, thicker tissue with a good blood supply is surgically repositioned to cover the damaged area.This type of surgery is not always successful, however, especially for frail older people who are malnourished. Often, when infections develop deep within a sore, antibiotics are given. When bones beneath a sore become infected, the bone infection (osteomyelitis) is extremely difficult to cure and may spread through the bloodstream, requiring many weeks of treatment with an antibiotic (see Bone and Joint Infections: Osteomyelitis). Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- The terms decubitus ulcer and pressure sore often are used interchangeably in the medical community.Decubitus, from the Latin decumbere, means Ã¢â¬Å"to lie down. Ã¢â¬ Decubitus ulcer, therefore, does not adequately describe ulceration that occurs in other positions, such as prolonged sitting (eg, the commonly encountered ischial tuberosity ulcer). Because the common denominator of all such ulcerations is pressure, pressure sore is the better term to describe this condition. Pressure is exerted on the skin, soft tissue, muscle, and bone by the weight of an individual against a surface beneath.These pressures are often in excess of capillary filling pressure, approximately 32 mm Hg. In patients with normal sensitivity, mobility, and mental faculty, pressure sores do not occur. Feedback, conscious and unconscious, from the areas of compression leads inIndividuals who are unable to avoid long periods of uninterrupted pressure over bony prominencesÃ¢â¬âa group of patients that typically includes elderly individuals, persons who are neurologically impaired, and patients who are acutely hospitalizedÃ ¢â¬âare at increased risk for the development of necrosis and ulceration.These individuals cannot protect themselves from the pressure exerted on their body unless they consciously change position or have assistance in doing so. Even the most conscientious patient with an extensive support group and unlimited financial resources may develop ulceration resulting from a brief lapse in avoidance of the ill effects of pressure. [2, 3] dividuals to change body position. These changes shift the pressure prior to any irreversible tissue damage. The inciting event for a pressure sore is compression of the tissues by an external force, such as a mattress, wheelchair pad, or bed rail.Other traumatic forces that may be present include shear forces and friction. These forces cause microcirculatory occlusion as pressures rise above capillary filling pressure, resulting in ischemia. Ischemia leads to inflammation and tissue anoxia. Tissue anoxia leads to cell death, necrosis, and ulceration. Ã ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Irreversible changes may occur after as little as 2 hours of uninterrupted preSpecialized support surfaces are available for bedding and wheelchairs, which can maintain tissues at pressures below 30 mm Hgssure. urning and repositioning the patient remain the cornerstones of prevention and treatment. The wound and surrounding skin must be kept clean and free A new international guideline with regard to the prevention of pressure ulcers was released in 2009.  A collaboration between the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, the guideline covers the latest evidence-based recommendations for all patients in all healthcare settings.Clinical practice recommendations in regard to prevention will include: * Current definitions and classification of pressure ulcers; * Risk assessment, including the role of nutrit ion; * Skin inspection and skin care; * Positioning and repositioning patients; * Evidence for use of various support surfaces (air-fluidized beds; alternating air mattresses and cushions; foam-, gel-, or fluid-filled mattresses; overlays for operating tables; turning beds; and other aids for pressure redistribution); * Protective devices used for pressure ulcer prevention; and * Education and training for healthcare providers.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Computer Communications and Netwoks - Essay Example The motivation behind the creation of communication systems is due to the need for the improvement of transmission reliability. This is due to the reduction of errors in the process of sending and the reception of messages. Communications systems also increase the transmission capacity with the ability of sending large sizes of data in a single mode for a short time. In order to enable the exchange of information, there must be the transmission of the information from different devices, through a communication channel. There exists different communication media such as optical fiber and microwaves that possess unique characteristics for optimum performance. The integration of all the components of information technology forms a communication system (Beavin, p. 12). There are various requirements for computer communication. Such components include computer hardware. These are the tangible physical components of the computer. For instance, a Modem is one of the hardware devices that have the ability to send signals from one computer to another over telephone signals. This comprises of the computer inputs for communication purposes. The other component is computer software. This controls the computer operations, according to the instructions of the users. The software allows computers to interact with other computers through the management of resources. Some of the utility software contains language translators for easy communication between computers. Another component is the availability of a database. This is the storage of related data in an organized manner. This enables users to retrieve information when they require, for communication purposes. Through the Database Management System (DBMS), users have the ability to create, maintain, and a ccess a database. The other component is the availability of a network. Computers have the ability to converge telephone networks, in addition to other networks of communication that use both data and voice for
Friday, September 27, 2019
A case study on E-commerce business model - Assignment Example E-commerce-a strong promotion & Market research tool: Richard who was supposed to be a gardener diverted in a medium which he thought can change his business distribution strategy if properly used i.e WWW. He was in need a mode to take his products to the people who are in search of the same. WWW is having no boundaries and can reach customers beyond horizons and can transfer data with more precision. trivial option for the conventional gardener as it was termed as an expensive tool and complex tool to work with. The professional charges to build a website with all the features were difficult to bear with. The initial investment is needed to place a website was a bit high. Prior to the advent of WWW, gardening companies have to register their company and their products to an apex organization to market their products. These apex organizations used to divert the customers to the respective companies for the products thus the medium in between was circuitous and complex for a customer to approach. E-commerce has eliminated these hurdles and kept the entire information required on the website that can be viewed by the consumers at their convenience. Unlike conventional marketing strategies, the website needs constant update and monitoring which was not an encouraging factor for gardeners. Richard has made a bold move by initiating the efforts to learn and implement the methods of developing the website. His initial efforts made to learn the pro and cons of using internet marketing. He constantly updated his knowledge and the technology thus set the platform that made him to entice more customers. He identified the channel where he can position his web link in the cluster of garden websites thus avoiding the high expenses incurred by the print and other physical medium E-Commerce an effective distribution channel: Richard has initiated the client relationship through email and the queries were addressed every mornings and evenings at convenient timings. E-mail correspondence has enhanced the reach as it can address the concerns and requests in a flash of time. The
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Economic Inequalities in The United States - Research Paper Example The wish of most Americans is to bring the economic equality to an end. The society has been involved in the search of the possible social solutions to the increased inequality. The possible solutions include reducing taxes on the income of the low class group, increased taxes on the wealth and income of the high class group and adjusting the social security tax. Social nature of the problem Economic inequality exists in the United States due individuals having varied amount of money, power or even prestige. This problem creates different social classes among the people. Individuals in higher classes enjoy higher income and have continued to accumulate their wealth, while the lower class individuals in the society incur higher rates of taxes on their low income. As inequality in terms of resources widens, individuals with more wealth have become powerful and are be able to attain their goals. They will be able to accomplish their vested interests at the expense of the lower social cl ass individuals. They are also influential in the society and are powerfully in making different decisions. Inequality in income results from several causes, some of these causes are relatively clear, others unknown and others are still under dispute. The basic cause of household income inequality at a structural level is variations in the yearly hours worked per household. It can be broken down into the product of the total number of workers, the yearly weeks worked and the weekly hours worked. This is a very significant factor among individuals in the lower class level. However, it remains minor among individuals who belong to the higher class. Beyond the total hours individuals have worked, income inequality arises out of; the variation of the income rates per hour and the income which has not been earned, these differences is mainly due to differences in the education level. Income inequality is common in the United States due to the variation of an individual position in terms of responsibility, its importance and the complexity. Income remains to be a common form of compensation. In most cases the market value is reduced by abundant supply hence, income is increased significantly by the possession of scarce skills. The most common source of income among the lower class individuals in America is not occupation but the government welfare. Causes of the problem There are several causes of economic inequality in the United States. These include; difference in the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth and income, most individuals depends on the income they get from their jobs. Others however, benefits from both their jobÃ¢â¬â¢s income and their wealth. The big problem is that those with higher sources of income get larger percentage of increase than those with little income. The wealthy are able to accumulate their wealth and income for several years unlike those with little income and no wealth. This creates a wide gap between the two groups of individuals. Those who are wealthy are in a position to vie for political offices and invest more money in order to win. They will also be able to interact with other individuals of the same class and who also have similar power and interests. Another cause of inequality in the capitalistic society is that there is an existing belief that the government influence has to be maintained at a minimal level (Sen and Foster1997). When the
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Coca-Cola Internal Analysis and SWOT Analysis - Essay Example Naturally this means that the organizations must develop their internal capabilities to the extent that they will be difficult for competitors to imitate or substitute. This paper conducts an internal analysis of the Coca-Cola Company in order to delineate those resources and capabilities from which it derives its strength as well as those competencies that it either lacks or poorly executes and as such are its major weaknesses that competitors could exploit. The paper begins with an evaluation of Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s tangible and intangible resources that lead to its strengths then uses the value-chain analysis to bring out and then analyze the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknesses. Analysis Resource and competency analysis According to Henry (2011) whereas the existence of resources is important, by themselves they do not confer any benefits to the organization. It is how efficiently these resources are configured that provides the organization with competencies that allow the organization t o achieve competitive advantage. ... company able to blend ingredients into the unique Coke formula X -Ability to continuously come up with new products and/or expand product lines -Managing the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest beverage distribution system (Coca-Cola, 2012) also effective in franchising -Enterprise Value: US$ 173.46 billion (Yahoo! Finance, 2012) -Current Ratio above 1 from 2009 to 2011 (EBIT Financial, 2012). -Return on Equity, Operating margin and Net margins have been double digits since 2007 (EBIT Financial, 2012) Financial - Has the resources for R&D, market development, market expansion and so on. -CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s efficient in turning its product to cash - Ability to consistently deliver profits reassures investors and other suppliers of financial capital -146,200 employees Human -Also has a strong diversity and inclusion policy that enriches its talent pool - Holds secret formula X Intellectual / technological -Own and market four of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s top five nonalcoholic sparkling beverage bran ds: Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite. Intangibles -Intelligently exploited the mystery of CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s formula X for market positioning -Renown for superior advertising and other market promotion techniques From the table above three key strengths emerge. Firstly, Coca-Cola has a remarkable global presence. This enables the company to leverage its economies of scale to weaken the power of its suppliers as well as its customers. Also, this global presence implies that the company is able to balance its performance in slow economic regions with that from booming economic regions to sustain its profitability. Secondly, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s healthy financial position even during the global recession gives it a good credit rating. This means the company can easily raise additional capital for various strategic
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Art Parthenon and the Ara Pacis - Essay Example To Greeks, Parthenon symbolized the ideal of perfection, which each person anticipated achieving in life contrary to the other people. This is because they deemed other people did not have any ideals or values, which they lived by or guided them to be different from the mere humanity. It also depicted their way of life, which entailed attention to fine details in all the tasks they undertook, hence differentiated them from other uncouth populace. Additionally, Parthenon expressed the GreeksÃ¢â¬â¢ aspects of harmony, balance and organization or order evidently in its mode of design. The most pronounced ideal conveyed by Ara Pacis was the power, which emanated from the ascendance of empireÃ¢â¬â¢s generals. This was after the return of King Augustus where his allies assumed diverse positions in his authority . Besides, there was emergence of foreign children (evident in Fig. 3) into the Roman, which implied that the state was the center of attraction and comfort. Hence, the entire w orld can come and inhabit in Rome due to the peace maintained by King AugustusÃ¢â¬â¢ authority. The depiction of GreeksÃ¢â¬â¢ perfection and fine to details is apparent in the ParthenonÃ¢â¬â¢s design. This is via from the way the ParthenonÃ¢â¬â¢s builders carefully utilized geometry to come up with well-scaled features, which are proportional. Hence, setting all the Athenians apart from other global people where according to them (Athenians) during then referred other people as barbarians. The ParthenonÃ¢â¬â¢s site and painting emphasized the aspect of harmony.... Besides, there was emergence of foreign children (evident in Fig. 3) into the Roman, which implied that the state was the center of attraction and comfort (Buxton & Kleiner 57). Hence, the entire world can come and inhabit in Rome due to the peace maintained by King AugustusÃ¢â¬â¢ authority. c) The Parthenon The depiction of GreeksÃ¢â¬â¢ perfection and fine to details is apparent in the ParthenonÃ¢â¬â¢s design (Lstiburek 85). This is via from the way the ParthenonÃ¢â¬â¢s builders carefully utilized geometry to come up with well-scaled features, which are proportional. Hence, setting all the Athenians apart from other global people where according to them (Athenians) during then referred other people as barbarians (Lstiburek 80). The ParthenonÃ¢â¬â¢s site and painting emphasized the aspect of harmony where its color does not contrast with its environment. The shape of the entire building coupled with its interior design depicts the aspects of order and symmetrical balance, w hich is evident from the birdÃ¢â¬â¢s view (in Fig. 2). Fig. 2 depicts the outline and scale utilized in laying diverse structures that comprised the temple, for instance, pillars. Figure 1: The Parthenon. Accessed on 23rd October 2012 from Figure 2: Parthenon Bird's view plan showing the aspects of balance, order and fine to details. This is evident from the scale used, which enabled well placement of the peripheral pillars from each side. Accessed on 23rd October 2012 from The Ara Pacis Contrary to the ParthenonÃ¢â¬â¢s site, Ara PacisÃ¢â¬â¢ location was inside a building though both the structures
Monday, September 23, 2019
System Dynamic Modeling Methodology - Essay Example System dynamics is the study and application of how the system works and how it could be improved upon and made more efficient. From the management point of view, system dynamics is an indispensable tool without which any attempt at effective decision making is fraught with grave risks and danger to the enterprise. Even so, decisions based on meticulous implementation of system dynamics are no guarantee for sure success, although they may help to some extent in maintaining the status quo after thorough trial and testing. As an aid to decision making, system dynamics has no alternative. It monopolizes the entire realm of factors, utilities, activities, tools, elements, and even incentives and motivations that go into the outcome of a single product. It is the root from which the management could hope to draw the fruits, and the pruning from which better growth could be ensured . The origins of system dynamics encompass the entire management hierarchy. It is a process which is as much relevant on the shop floor as it is at the highest management level. The theory of system dynamics is based on certain assumptions relevant to the creation and operation of the system that runs the enterprise. The guiding principles for the management of the ecosystem are interlinked with those of the manufacturing units and global warming issues. Each of these is crucially linked to the other and their successful coordination is essential in order to curtail harmful greenhouse effects and preserve life and natural resources. The modalities for coordinating multipurpose system dynamics are based on the observation and studies of several disciplines of both natural and manmade order. Ecosystems and ecological processes related to hydrology, hydrochemistry, hydrobiology, water bodies, thermodynamics, environmental geography, mathematics and statistics covering ecosystems and ecology, industrial statistics, waste and pollution management statistics and approaches to information systems and operations research are some of the important features that assume prominence in development of system dynamics modeling methodology. It is necessary to ensure the components comprising each system evaluation does not overlap with different disciplines, or even if they do they do not present distorted but precise information in keeping with the identity of the factor or factors the component of the system is tracking. For instance, if there is a single chemical compound contaminating a water body then the component of the system tracking it should be the same for the source of the chemical compound, its course and its final destination.  Advantage/disadvantage (limitation of the method) System dynamics provides constant feedback on the basis of which decisions can be taken and corrective measures applied. Indeed, the utility and scope of the system dynamics rests on its ability to provide information for deciding on the subsequent course of action. Corporate policies and decisions through appropriate use of quantitative analysis and selection of right information could result in better chances of success. One of the major problems with the system is that the
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Recommendation Report - Assignment Example By becoming energy efficient the company becomes cost efficient which provides not only the economic benefit but also a marketing benefit. One way YEG can tap into the eco-consumer market is by providing LED light bulbs that reduce utility bills by up to 80% and have the lifespan of as long as 20 years. In this report, a cost benefit analysis of LED bulbs and its non-LED counterparts will be done and the pros and cons of each product will be analyzed. Green Marketing Analysis Green marketing is essentially the, Ã¢â¬Å"consumption an disposal of products and services happen in a manner that is less detrimental to the environmentÃ¢â¬ (Choudhary & Gokarn, 2013). With the rise in the awareness about nonbiodegradeable waste, impact of toxic pollutants and global warming, marketers are consumers are now shifting towards green marketing and becoming more environmentally conscious. We believe YEG can achieve success in green marketing if three key principles given below are followed (Chou dhary & Gokarn, 2013): Consumer Value Positioning Calibration of Consumer Knowledge Credibility of Product Claim Customers are looking for these three principles when they consider the green products. Consumer value positioning entails providing a product that is just as good if not better, than its alternatives. The value that the customer is looking for should be present in the eco-friendly product. Calibration of consumer knowledge means that you educate the consumers about the specific environmentally friendly attributes of the product. This involves using the Ã¢â¬ËgreenÃ¢â¬â¢ aspect of the product as a marketing tool. Marketing the product as a Ã¢â¬Ëgreen solutionÃ¢â¬â¢ for their needs is essential as studies show that if all other things are constant, consumers will prefer the green alternative (Ginsberg & Bloom, 2004). Credibility of product claim means that the business should market the productsÃ¢â¬â¢ benefits in a specific and meaningful manner. Studies show that consumers donÃ¢â¬â¢t like Ã¢â¬Ëgreen marketingÃ¢â¬â¢ if it is done as a, Ã¢â¬Å"token gesture flashed as eye candy on market literatureÃ¢â¬ (Univsersity of Vermont, 2012). Hence credibility of the claims being made is important while implementing this strategy. Keeping in mind these three principles that the customers require, if YEG will provide a product that delivers on all three factors with its value and is a Ã¢â¬Ëgreen solutionÃ¢â¬â¢ then YEG can tap into this market. Annotated Bibliography Mishra, P., & Sharma, P. (2012). Green Marketing: Challenges and Opportunities for Business. Journal of Marketing and Communication, 8(1), 35-41 This paper analyzes the need for green marketing in a business, the goals of green marketing and the challenges associated with it. It also examines the benefits it can give to the business if implemented properly and the role this strategy will play in the future. The core theme of this paper was how to pursue green marketing along w ith its environmental and social dimensions. It suggests that environmental impact assessment must be done in a systemized and effective manner. The three goals that companies must achieve to become ecofriendly include: Cleaning up their products by eliminating hazardous substances, take back and recycle products and reduce climate impact. The marketers should educate the consumers about the benefits of green products and form a policy that addresses their need for a quality product that does not
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Global Strategy of Sony Ericsson Essay In 2001, Sony Ericsson is established by the Japanese company Sony (a consumer electronics corporation) as a fifty-fifty joint venture with the Swedish telecommunications company Ericsson (a mobile communications infrastructure and systems business) which offers mobile phones, accessories and applications. Before the merger, its provides expertise in mobile communication, after the merger, its provide both the consumer electronics and content expertise. In 2011, Sony Ericsson changes their global strategy by focusing more on high end smartphones. At the same times, Sony Ericsson will focus on their key markets, which is including the U. S., Russia, China and Germany. The transaction gives Sony focus on high end smartphones product includes their accessories and application that will lead to profitability and the growth of its business. However, the company facing new challenges in this dynamic changing environment, aggressive competition will affect the global market share of the company and it revenue. In 2012, Sony Ericsson becomes an end when SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s announcement that it will acquired 50 percent stake in Sony Ericsson, changed its name to Sony Mobile Communications AB (SMEC) let Sony Ericsson becomes an affiliated company of Sony Corporation (Sony). Sony is a multinational corporation, one of the most leading brand and its functions as designing, manufacturing, marketing mobiles phones and its accessories. With the announcement of acquisition, it will be a brand new start for Sony Ericsson to embark within the Sony family, expanded their marketing activities. Sony Ericsson use outsourcing for the customer interaction centre is another global strategy. This customer interaction centre is established to solve and meet all customer requirements and their problems, and at the same time reducing their cost for expansion.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Advantages of organizational behaviour in an organization Introduction Management deals with people, their ideas and things related to them. In a simple form management can be defined as the art of things getting done through people in groups organized formally . Management is the process where groups of people are involved in performance of organized activities. In an organization with a large number of employees the process of management directs the managers to perform some functions such as planning, staffing, controlling, organizing and directing to get things done by others. Organizational behavior can be used to improve the management practices for influencing the employees effectively and working with them. Management is the key to obtaining organizational effectiveness. Organizational effectiveness depends on meeting the rapid changing requirements of the organization such as having the right people for the right job and at the right time. It helps understand the production and behavioral control in an organization. The study of organizational behavior in an organization has the following advantages: It helps to expand the horizon of management. It helps improve the organizational performance in line with the individual performance which include reward systems, leadership, motivation etc., It helps develop commitment among the employees to achieve their personal goals thereby achieving the goals of the company. It helps to understand, predict and control the behavior in the organization. There are numerous factors that determine the successful performance in an organization, but for our discussion we will consider few important factors which are as follows: Recruitment and Selection Training and development Reward through proper Performance Appraisal System Effective Communication Skills Developing Dedication by Motivating employees Also, there are many factors that contribute to the changing nature of work at organization, but the two main factors are: Current market scenario requires organizations to be more competitive and customer focused, hence there is an increased pressure on the organization The breakthrough in IT and communication is another factor. For example mobile and internet have made work to be separated from time and space. Organizations have changed their focus and their main principles are: Defining vision and values from the consumers perspective Creating a value chain i.e., defining activities and process that add value to customers and link them Remove activities that add no value to the organization. Reducing inefficiencies in the tasks in an organization. These principles have added value to the organization enabling them to respond rapidly to customers needs and supporting change and encouraging innovation. I would also be discussing the various changes in the nature of modern work environment relevant to the factors Ive stated above. Recruitment and Selection Recruitment is process in which a qualified and suitable person is selected for a job in a company. The recruitment process is the responsibility of the HR department and various methods are available for this process such as interviews, aptitude test, questionnaires etc., It is a forming phase and is the most difficult phase for the managers. Let us consider the recruitment and selection process at Tesco. There are different ways through which Tesco advertises its vacancies. It first advertises its vacancy internally through intranet for two weeks. This provides an opportunity for the current employees looking for a change at the same level or for a promotion. Tesco advertises its vacancies on the web at www.tesco-careers.com for external recruitment. It also displays vacancy boards on its stores. For managerial positions the applications are made online. The applicants chosen will have to first undergo an interview and for the final stage they will have attendance at the assessment centre. A waiting list of applicants is prepared by the stores and as the jobs become available candidates are finalized. Specialist jobs as bakers and pharmacists are advertised externally through the following means: Through the web and offline media Through television and radio Through advertisements in newspapers and magazines. As many other companies Tesco also looks forward for cost- effective way of attracting applicants. Though advertising on media and magazines is expensive but sometimes this becomes essential to attract suitable people for the vacancy. Selection can be defines as selecting the most suitable person from the list of candidates who have applied for the vacancy taking into consideration the laws and regulations of employment. Screening is an important part of the selection process and ensures that the selected candidates for the interview will be best suited for the job. There are different stages in the screening process. In the first stage, the selectors at Tesco look through the CVs of the applicants as this briefs the candidates education and job history. A CV helps to assess whether the candidate meets the specification for the job. Screening is followed by the candidate who attends the assessment centre. This process takes place either in store and are run by managers. The candidates are assessed through various exercises such as team work and problem solving. This also provides consistency in the selection process. In the modern work environment, the selection and recruitment process has become more sophisticated and detailed to opt for the best knowledge and skills in the market. The number of screening processes that organizations hold to select the right candidates has increased and also the type of tests have become more radical in their approach. Tests such as psychological evaluation and stress interviews are a common practice in todays work environment. Training and Development Training is very essential for the newly recruited employees. It is also very essential for the employees already employed so that their skills are up to date and in line with the latest trends and technologies. Training is becoming an essential part of every organization these days. Employees are made to undergo training programs in order to maximize their potential to meet organization goals. Lets us consider Barclays for our case study here. Training is a very crucial task for the Human Resource department at Barclays. The main reason for this being the induction program helps employees understand the various policies and the structure of their jobs. This will also give employees enough time to adjust themselves to the environment in the organization together with inducing new ideas and skills in the employees. Training is the most difficult and challenging part in the organization as it is a continuous process where the trainer acting as a change agent makes trainees get familiar with the new organization. The following are the main training aims at Barclay: It helps to increase the level of confidence and motivation in employees It creates a feeling of achievement and personal satisfaction Improves the quality of staff and improves their skills. The above are the contributing factors that the help the HR achieve their goal of making the employees feel a part of the organization. Selecting a suitable a trainer is a very challenging issue as he a middleman between the employees and the organization. The trainer has the following responsibilities. The trainer must assess the need for training the individual and set up a training program for the employee in order to reach the ultimate goal of the organization. He must design the training program. The most important task at Barclays Plc is group participation. Hence the main aim of the trainer would be to encourage this task. The trainer acts as a messenger between the employees and the management. The trainer must make sure that the newly learned skills are being practically applied. He will decide the need for further training on the basis of the current performance appraisal. In the modern work environment employees are keener on keeping themselves in touch with the latest technological development. They always pick up skills and enhance their knowledge quotient so as to face the growing competition in the current work environment. Therefore employing training and development schemes would be easier and would improve the overall quality of the workforce. Performance Appraisal and Reward System Performance appraisal is a process where performance of an employee is assessed in terms of expected goals set for them. On the basis of performance appraisal the company decides promotions, terminations, the level of supervision and the duties and responsibilities to be assigned to the employees. During the phase of performance appraisal the actual performance of the employees is assessed and evaluated. The HRM is responsible for the performance appraisal and it is its duty to pass the information accurately and impartially to the management so that necessary and future corrective measures can be taken. The HRM faces the following issues during performance appraisal: Recognition and identification of an employees strengths and weaknesses. This will help to utilize the strengths more effectively and the necessary steps to be taken to overcome the individuals weakness. In certain cases employees should be given full effort, hence the HRM should identify the problems which are causing this. This also provides information needed for HR planning and act as an input to the HR department. This acts as a basis to make decisions such as strategies and future long term objectives. It is the duty of the human resource management to create a method of performance appraisal and system of reward. The method created should be in line with the objectives of training and development program. Defined standards should be set to measure performance. The HRM should decide who will be using the appraisal method and appraised by the method created. The HRM should gather feedback from the employees about the appraisal method created, this will act as source of boosting the employees morale. This will help the employees assess their strengths and weakness. This will further encourage the employees to do better to get a reward from the organization. Employees in the organization try to do tasks that will not alone get them rewards in the form of bonuses and incentives but recognition in form of certificates and medals and also appraisal for doing something new and innovative. This will help motivate the employees. In the case of Barclays the reward system is very important as this will help influence the employees to do something better and innovative. The reward system ultimately acts as a motivational factor for growth in future and is not an easy task. As this depends on the responsibility and the type of job being done. If the performance management system is handled carefully and properly, leads to outstanding performance by employees and increases the level of motivation decreasing the absenteeism lack of morale of employees. Performance appraisal and reward schemes are vital in todays work environment because employees today are more influenced by the corporate lifestyle and are always in the lookout for better job opportunities and hiked salaries. Therefore it is essential for organizations to keep their employees loyal towards them, and the easiest and most effective way of doing it is performance appraisal and reward schemes. Effective Communication Skills Effective communication is nothing but an art of conveying our message clearly to other people. It involves a lot of effort for effective communication as any error or distortion will result in misinterpretation of message. Lack of effective communication may result in lack of information, misunderstandings, employee performance may decrease which may ultimately affect the companys turnover. Ineffective communication may become a source of conflict and frustrate the employees. The managers inability to communicate effectively may lead to the inability of employee not performing well as per the company demands. This happens when the employee is not aware of what is requested of him and ultimately leads employee dissatisfaction. Effective communication has its own benefits in the workplace. Effective communication from managers to employees will result in the employees doing their job well. A good management style together with a positive communication approach will be quite effective in the workplace and will lead to better understanding between the employee and manager. For an organization to be successful communication should happen both internally and externally. Internal communication: between management and employees. External communication: this takes place between staff and clients. Let us consider Vodafone as a case study to illustrate the effective communication skills Internal Communication: this takes place inside the organization between the employees and management. Here the employees act as stakeholders. This communication may take place in any of the forms listed below: Vertically: this the top down approach which happens from the senior employees to juniors associates. The ultimate goal here is to improve the performance of tasks and make the junior employees understand the companys priorities and requirements. Horizontally: this takes places between various teams and across departments. The goal here is to make sure roles are effectively carried out and tasks completed. Intranet with restricted access to people within the business is a great tool for promoting better communication. External communication :this takes place with customers. Vodafone has laid a principle for communication as We will communicate openly and transparently with all of our stakeholders within the bounds of commercial confidentiality. Vodafone believes that this will reduce the barriers to communication. It makes sure that its messages are conveyed both verbally and non verbally. For verbal communication the company has set contact centers so that the staff can be in direct contact with the customers and further giving an opportunity for its staff to talk to the customers about the issues. Non verbal communication can take place through various methods such as advertisements in television, newspapers and other media, the Vodafone logo. This also acts as a method of determining the position of the brand. Further methods of non verbal communication include SMS to contact certain customers. Sales information can be reached out to customers through literature in the Vodafone shops. The many forms of communication through which Vodafone reaches out to its customers are as below: Promotion and sales material- Vodafone makes sure that the advertising material is correct and follows its Business principles. This also helps the information reaches out responsibly to its stakeholders together with promoting its products and services. Awareness and Information: Vodafone promoted the use of mobile phones responsibly in the cars. It took the complex material and translated the information in easy to understand form and made the public aware of the new law and appropriate use of phones in the car. Explanation and guidance: mobile phones have health effects on human beings. But the latest scientific research has something new and Vodafone needs to convey these findings clearly to the customers. Communication in todays work environment is not only important as a means of better process flow but also as a means to bring all the employees together as a single unit. This is really beneficial when the employees have to work in a team environment. In todays work environment, employees have access to social network websites which are capable to increase the bond between employees and improve their effort as a team. Motivation to dedicate Employees A well motivated staff is a key to a productive and pleasant environment in a workplace. Motivating the employees must be one of the key responsibilities of a manager. An effective management and leadership reflect through effective motivation of employees in the workplace. Understanding the human nature is a key to effective employee motivation. The key to performance improvement in an organization is motivation. Motivation is very essential for any business to survive and excel. Motivation is a skill and must be learnt. Performance can be defined as a function of ability and motivation as below Job performance= function (ability)(motivation) Ability depends on education and training. Motivation has the following seven strategies through which it can be initiated: Fair treatment of people Positive and high expectations Discipline Satisfying the needs of the employees Setting goals at work To restructure the jobs Set rewards and recognition for performance Every organization has its own ways to motivate the employees to ensure that goals and targets are reached . Motivation plays a vital role in todays work environment. Due to the cut-throat competition between organizations, it can be seen as a common practice for organizations to hire their rivals best workforce. So as to avoid that, employees need to be motivated not only in terms of their incentives and salary packages for their physical needs, but also with praise and recognition and better work environment to ease their psychological needs. Obstacles to Effective Performance The main obstacles to effective performance in an organization are as follows: Culture Change Conflict Culture Culture is related to beliefs, values and customary ways of doing things. The main reason for employees leaving the company is cultural mismatch. According to the present culture employees are required to have a clear understanding of short term and long term goals. The employees are required to have a shared vision and values as well as being productive and motivated. The organizational culture is determined by the leadership style and practices in an organization and hence plays an important role especially during acquisitions and mergers. Every organization has a set of values and beliefs. When an employee is exposed to a new culture, the individual goes through a state known as culture shock. When the companies merge the employees from the non dominant company need to adapt themselves to the new culture of the dominant company. Let us consider Barclay Plc for instance. Barclay acquired Lehman Brothers and one of the major issues for Barclay after this acquisition is to take into consideration the two different cultures in these two companies. Most of the employees of Lehman Brothers have left Barclay and a few did not join Barclay. This makes it clear that the employees are not ready to adapt to the new values, leadership styles, beliefs and practices of the Barclay culture. One of the biggest challenges to the management at Barclay is to make employees accept the new culture. The change in culture ultimately has an effect on the motivation level of the employees, their commitment to the organization and their engagement in work. Another consequence of an acquisition is that the individuals from the non dominant organization will feel like loss of identity and the others will have a superior feeling. This will ultimately affect the company achieve its goals and objectives. Another major issue of culture when the two organizations were merged is it will divert the attention of the employees and make the less productive. The attention of employees will be diverted to issues such as job security , feeling of discomfort working with new employees. Job security is the main issue as there will be duplication of departments and to manage the staff, the organization can reduce the manpower. The job profiles may be redesigned which may have an impact on the performance of the employees. The employees motivation, attitude and performance are determined by the culture. Motivation and culture go hand in hand. More an employee is motivated; the culture will be healthier. The key factor to be dealt in any organization is motivation. If an employee is not motivated properly then the employee will have problem accepting the new culture which will impact the individuals ability to do the job effectively and efficiently. The company should have flexible culture if a decision of acquisition is taken. This will allow the new employees to adjust to the new culture. Culture reflects the style of management and leadership. A slight change in the values, leadership style and ideas will help the new employees adjust to the new environment. This is not easy task, but since Barclays has taken a decision of merger it should be ready to consider changes in its culture and leadership style. Change Except for change nothing is constant in this world. Every activity in an organization results in some change. It can have a positive or negative effect depending on the communication made through change. The acquisition of Barclay and Lehman Brothers bought together a huge change in both organizations. New strategies and policies, procedures and work environment were created for work in both organizations. Change should involve people and not be imposed on people. Preparing the employees of an organization for change is a very vital task and it is the responsibility of the management to do this. This can be done through various methods such as through oral communication, via training programs or through counseling. The major reason for the Lehman employees leaving Barclays when the two organizations were merged is that the change was not managed properly. The key principles needed when planning to manage change are as follows: Every person reacts to change differently. Each person is different and has its own perceptions and preferences. A few people always look forward to change and new things and it easy to handle them. But it is a very difficult to handle people who always like things the way they were. These kind of people will experience stress and dissatisfaction and negative attitude towards their counterparts preferences. Every person has his own needs and priorities A few people work just for money but a few for the self and social identification. Change can be managed effectively by designing jobs in a better way through job redesign, job rotation management etc. Managing expectations realistically The organization should make clear to its employees that it cannot make everyone happy at the same time and this should be communicated effectively and realistically. The relation between expectations and reality is very important. The management should do the tasks listed below in order to manage change effectively: The management should inspire people and set certain objectives, goals and values for the organization It should set up a communication network such as face to face interaction so that new ideas and policies can be easily communicated. If there are any obstacles in the way of communication then those should be removed as this will help people accept change. Change can be made inevitable by promotions, recruitments and rewards. Conflicts When Barclays merges with Lehman conflicts were natural to arise as people from two different cultures and two different companies were merging. Starting with small disputes, conflicts may reach to higher levels which will ultimately affect the organization. Since the culture of both organizations is different each will have its own ideas, strategies, perspectives and goals. The different types of conflict that may arise when people of two different cultures merge are as follows: Conflict with boss Since the manager has a more experience and bigger perspective it will not be good to encounter conflict with the boss. In order to avoid such a conflict it is better not to question his authority and any ideas and views should be presented in the form of suggestions. Conflict with colleagues Different point of view will lead to conflict between employees. This can be done resolved through proper communication. Conflicts with the subordinates Conflicts can be handles effectively by one of the following ways: Each person should be given freedom to express their views. Conflicts can be sorted to a greater level by identifying positive minded people. Not everyone may have a broad vision as ours. So communicating and discussing our vision will help keep conflicts away. Conclusion The base of any organization depends on the policy, the values, the vision, the philosophy and goals set by the management. These act as the driving force for the organizational culture. Culture in a workplace determines the leadership style, the type of communication and group dynamics within the organization. The employees in the organization perceive the culture as a quality essential at work which has an impact on the degree of the employees motivation. This ultimately affects the performance, personal growth and self development which ultimately affect the organization from achieving its goals. The above discussed concepts such as communication, motivation, culture etc, make up only a small part of the theories of organizational behavior and theory. The success of any organization is determined by the application of the concepts of organizational behavior in the organization. The best way to handle conflicts in a workplace is to address them through discussions and debates. Conflict can have a positive effect within the organization if it is addressed effectively. A successful manager is one who takes time to address and deal with the conflict. This in turn will lead to a healthy and diverse work environment.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Reason, Desire, and Sexuality: The Meaning of Gender in Northern Afghanistan This article by AUDREY C. SHALINSKY, discuss the life of men and woman during the year that citizen of Uzbekistan was migrated from Uzbekistan to northern Afghanistan known as the Muhajiren. Ã¢â¬Å"The Meaning of Gender in Northern AfghanistanÃ¢â¬ article talks about the life men and women and sexual relationship and the forbidden of sexuality in the religion of Islam also, it views gender as symbolic meanings mediated and interpreted through social experience and discourse. AUDREY C. SHALINSKY also, talk over the two interrelated sets of gender that are the symbolic statements about the nature of men and women and the other symbolic statements about the interaction of men and women. Similarly the author finally mentioned the ideas about marriage, veiling, and adultery. This article also talk about the Alimaste Ã¢â¬Å"witchlike figureÃ¢â¬ the statements about a woman`s passionate and uncontrolled nature. In the analysis this article focuses on traditional, norms, values, and a ttitudes and about the Islamic rule and current society of Afghanistan. These dataÃ¢â¬â¢s were selected during the year of 1976-1977 in Kundoz a province of Afghanistan located in the Northern of Afghanistan. The Islamic terms, which are used in this article, are nafs, aql and fitna and there were mosques that educate both men and women about these Islamic theories. This article also covers about the Good women and the Bad women and describes the meaning of good and bad. In addition the author firs discussed about the Islamic theory of individual and gender. In this theory the Muhajirin who are the migrants of Uzbekistan used three terms, which are aql, nafs, and fitna and learned these terms in mosques i... ...o sisters and a brother. Because, itÃ¢â¬â¢s something common to now a days happening in the rural areas of Afghanistan. We have many stories of teenage girls who are raped by such powerful and wealthy people in far provinces of Afghanistan. And has it mentioned in the book that the girl is blamed, harassed and punished harshly for the sin or crime she has not committed. It`s too similar to life of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s teenagers and younger girls of Afghanistan. Whom, do their families sell for money or in gambling to powerful and wealthy people? Not only this but the idea of woman not getting education. Still Afghan woman suffering the same problems is a far province and they are banned to get education. However, in Islam it`s not forbidden and Quran says equal education for women and men. But the traditionalist people use their own ideologies and stop women from getting education. Essay -- Reason, Desire, and Sexuality: The Meaning of Gender in Northern Afghanistan This article by AUDREY C. SHALINSKY, discuss the life of men and woman during the year that citizen of Uzbekistan was migrated from Uzbekistan to northern Afghanistan known as the Muhajiren. Ã¢â¬Å"The Meaning of Gender in Northern AfghanistanÃ¢â¬ article talks about the life men and women and sexual relationship and the forbidden of sexuality in the religion of Islam also, it views gender as symbolic meanings mediated and interpreted through social experience and discourse. AUDREY C. SHALINSKY also, talk over the two interrelated sets of gender that are the symbolic statements about the nature of men and women and the other symbolic statements about the interaction of men and women. Similarly the author finally mentioned the ideas about marriage, veiling, and adultery. This article also talk about the Alimaste Ã¢â¬Å"witchlike figureÃ¢â¬ the statements about a woman`s passionate and uncontrolled nature. In the analysis this article focuses on traditional, norms, values, and a ttitudes and about the Islamic rule and current society of Afghanistan. These dataÃ¢â¬â¢s were selected during the year of 1976-1977 in Kundoz a province of Afghanistan located in the Northern of Afghanistan. The Islamic terms, which are used in this article, are nafs, aql and fitna and there were mosques that educate both men and women about these Islamic theories. This article also covers about the Good women and the Bad women and describes the meaning of good and bad. In addition the author firs discussed about the Islamic theory of individual and gender. In this theory the Muhajirin who are the migrants of Uzbekistan used three terms, which are aql, nafs, and fitna and learned these terms in mosques i... ...o sisters and a brother. Because, itÃ¢â¬â¢s something common to now a days happening in the rural areas of Afghanistan. We have many stories of teenage girls who are raped by such powerful and wealthy people in far provinces of Afghanistan. And has it mentioned in the book that the girl is blamed, harassed and punished harshly for the sin or crime she has not committed. It`s too similar to life of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s teenagers and younger girls of Afghanistan. Whom, do their families sell for money or in gambling to powerful and wealthy people? Not only this but the idea of woman not getting education. Still Afghan woman suffering the same problems is a far province and they are banned to get education. However, in Islam it`s not forbidden and Quran says equal education for women and men. But the traditionalist people use their own ideologies and stop women from getting education.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Success of Tylenol During the 1900's, the McNeil company developed and established Tylenol into a well known and recommended analgesic. It has become recognized world wide as a safe brand of acetaminophen. The name Tylenol has become identified as a trusted, safe drug that people can easily purchase over the counter for their ailments. Tylenol is still recommended by doctors even though there was a cyanide scare in the history of the company. It has been discovered by my independent survey that consumers use Tylenol for their pet's needs also. Through the many years that Tylenol has been on the market, it has been a highly recommended analgesic by doctors. Reports show that doctors recommend Tylenol for headaches three times more than Advil, five times more than Excedrin, and seven times more than Aleve(Tylenol.com). Tylenol is also one of the mostly used analgesics by hospitals. Some of the reasons it is recommended so highly is because it is gentle on the stomach and is less likely to react with other medications. This would enable people with hypertension and gastrointestinal ulcers to use this medication. Arthritis experts also recommend Tylenol for osteoarthritic patients due to its wide margin of safety. The Tylenol Elixir product also has a proven record of safety and recommendation by doctors when used according to the correct dosage. These products ushered the McNeil company into a world wide company with well known products liked by the consumer. In a independent survey by myself, I found that seventy- nine percent of the people said they used Tylenol products. The recommendation by doctors of the safe product helped to establish the Tylenol products as being trustworthy and reliable fo... ... etc. As consumers in the 1990's and into the twenty-first century, the baby boomer generation loves to play hard and enjoy life, but with this hard play it sometimes brings about pain where they increasingly reach for Tylenol to give them comfort. Works Cited Fannin, Rebecca. Diary of Amazing Comeback. Marketing & Media Decisions. New York: Spring 1983. Guzzardi, Walter. Laurels: The National Business Hall Of Fame. Fortune. 12 March 90. Plunkett, Signe. Emergency Procedures For the Small Animal Veterinarian. 1993. p 117-119. Sherding, Robert G. The Cat Diseases and Clinical Management. 2nd Edition. Vol. 1. 1994. p 30-31, 233. Teague, Kerri. Independent Survey of Classmates. 23 May 2000. Tylenol Web site. 11 Apr 2000. . Wilson, Karen Ann. Analgesics Can Be Pain For Pets. St. Petersburg Times. 16 Oct. 1993.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
A twenty-four year-old women living in Cambodia, Chantha, was forced into prostitution at the age of thirteen. After growing up, Chantha moved away trying to find a new way because her mother and father mistreated her very much; they starved and beat Chantha. She eventually traveled to the inner cities of Cambodia to start a new life. Once, while walking the streets, she was offered a place to stay and work by a mysterious, beautiful woman. This woman was a decoy to lure Chantha into a trap. However, Chantha was very excited to find out she would have work and a place to stay to start living her new life, but the job was not what Chantha expected. At this new job, a brothel used for trafficking women, Chantha was one of fifteen girls who were forced into prostitution. All fifteen girls were forced to have sex with at least fifteen men per day and to make a minimum amount of money per day; the girls were beaten and starved if they did not make their deterrence. Eventually, Chantha was diagnosed with AIDS at the age of twenty-four. With neither family nor friends to comfort her, she is dying slowly and very lonely. Chantha is just one of millions of sexually trafficked victims. According to the US State Department, between two and four million women and children will be sex trafficked annually (Chantha). Sex trafficking, a form of human trafficking, is the act of trafficking in women, children, and men and forcing them into sexual conduct or prostitution. Sex trafficking is increasing every year, and many hopeless, innocent victims are affected. The world is in a process of eliminating sex trafficking and other forms of human trafficking by enforcing trafficking laws and other methods. However, the eradication of sex trafficking is... ...nce. Department of Public information, 21 Oct. 2009. Web. 17 Nov. 2011. . United States. US Department of State. Ã¢â¬Å"Countries N-Z.Ã¢â¬ Trafficking in Persons Report 2011 Country Narratives. By Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. Ed. Media and Public Affairs and Bureau of Public Affairs. 1-171. US Department of State. N.p., 2011. Web. 31 Dec. 2011. . University of Michigan Law School. Ã¢â¬Å"United States v. Raul Santillan-Leon.Ã¢â¬ Human Trafficking Database. Ed. University of Michigan Law. 1-3. Michigan Law. Univeristy of Michigan , 2011. Web. 31 Dec. 2011. . UN News Service. Ã¢â¬Å"Un agencies join forces to combat human trafficking and migrant smuggling.Ã¢â¬ UN News Centre. By UN News Service. 1-2. United Nations. United Nations: Press Release, 31 Oct. 2011. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. .
Monday, September 16, 2019
Olivia Brasacchio U. S. History Block 4 05/08/12 Ã¢â¬Å"A resolution to avoid an evil is seldom framed till the evil is so far advanced as to make avoidance impossibleÃ¢â¬ Thomas Hardy. The purpose of the War Powers Resolution act of 197 3 was to ensure that both Congress and the President share in making decisions that could potentially get the U. S. involved in hostilities or imitate danger. U. S. Presidents have consistently agreed that the War Powers Resolution Act is an unconstitutional violation of the higher powers of the executive branch.As a result, the Resolution has been the subject of controversy since its enactment in November of 1973, and is a recurring issue due to the ongoing commitment of U. S. armed forces globally. Furthermore, when a U. S. president has failed to secure a congressional declaration of war, this is technically considered an illegal war from a governmental standpoint. When the American people support such war, no matter how just and right they bel ieve it is, they are going against not only their owl principalÃ¢â¬â¢s and moral values but their defying the system of government and laws in which the U. S. as been brought up on, better yet their defying the constitution overall. The only way to properly justify this is through the War Powers Resolution itself. Section 4 of the resolution-article (a) subsection (3) states that Ã¢â¬Ëin the absence of a declaration of war, in any case in which United States Armed Forces are introducedÃ¢â¬ ¦. in numbers which substantially enlarge United States Armed Forces equipped for combat already located in a foreign nation; the president shall submit within 48 hours to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the President pro tempore of the Senate a report, in writing, setting forth. A) The circumstances necessitating the introduction of United States Armed Forces; (B) the constitutional and legislative authority under which such introduction took place; and (b) The President s hall provide such other information as the Congress may request in the fulfillment of its constitutional responsibilities with respect to committing the Nation to war and to the use of United States Armed Forces abroad.This only occurs if the president deems action necessary which was the purpose of the Golf of Tonkin resolution as well. However, if the president is the commander and chief of the army-then this essentially restricting his powers further-if he must have congress watching over him and approving his every request-which has said to take a fare amount of time, resulting in a possible loss for the U. S. on an important issue or military commitments to other countries.Moreover, this has played out in recent events from 1993 to 1999, when President Clinton utilized United States armed forces in multiple operations, such as air strikes and the deployment of peacekeeping forces, in Yugoslavia. These operations were identical to the United Nations Security Council resolutions and were conducted in correlation with other members of NATO. During this time President Clinton submitted multiple reports to Congress consistent with the War Powers Resolution Act and regulations regarding the involvement of U.S. forces. However, he never cited section 4(a) (1), which did not trigger the start of the 60 day time limit that should have occurred. Tom Campbell-member of the House of Representatives filed suit in the United States Federal District Court of Colombia, against President Kennedy on allegations that he had violated the War Powers Resolution now that the 60 days had elapsed since the start of military operations in Kosovo. President Kennedy stated that he considered this Ã¢â¬Ëconstitutionally defectiveÃ¢â¬â¢.In the end the court ruled in favor of the president, saying that members lacked legal standing and evidence to make their case fully plausible. The U. S. Supreme Court then refused to hear an appeal once this decision was made. This one of many exa mples in U. S. history where the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s power to engage in military conflict has been questioned and proved unconstitutional regarding problems with War Powers Resolution act.