Wednesday, May 13, 2020
The seventh chapter of Romans remains one of the more controversial sections of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s final letter. This paper will attempt to provide a unique interpretation and of vv14-25 . This section is rhetorically and stylistically challenging, and there is no consensus as to audience, or meaning. It might be seen as offering up a very low anthropology, and a pessimistic view of the human condition. Even the central question of who is thought to be speaking in the majority of the chapter remains a hotly contested question. Nevertheless, in the face of perceived ambiguity, the speaker of Romans Chapter 7 offers an insight into the deep schism of action and thought that is found in each human mind, which can only be escaped through the grace andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦She is saying I do not understand my own actions. In a different sense, she is exclaiming that those actions are understood all too well. Even if she were able to appeal to the law, or to some basic morality , info rming her as to what was right, it does not give her the power to consistently execute on it. This is the realization that cognitive exercises can be productive, but alone are not sufficient to bring about action. There is a schism, or divide that separates the two, over which the power of though alone is not able to travel. For her, this schism leads only to death. Through this voice, we are provided with the juxtaposition of doing good and sinning, of the law of God and the law of our members, and of the direction of the mind and the actions of the body. The acknowledgement of this schism gives rise to an infinite regression of self-reflexive thought seen in vv18-24. One look inward gives way to another, and then yet another. Each glance towards her self-betraying mind makes her more aware of the next layer of confusion that lies below. The desire to serve God leads directly to a war with Ã¢â¬Å"sin that dwells in [her] membersÃ¢â¬ (v23). Looking beyond the fact that this self- reflexive exercise is completely unfulfilling, it is also unending. In an expression of exasperation, we find the lasting question, Ã¢â¬Å"who will rescue me from this body of death?Ã¢â¬ (v24). Some may see this critique as damning or dismissive towards the law in general. It isShow MoreRelatedThe Book Of Revelation, The Final Book Of The Bible1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageskingdom and patience that are in Jesus, was on the island which is called Patmos, because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus. Revelations 1:9-10 There is speculation that John was imprisoned on Patmos for the crime of not worshiping the Roman emperor. It is a popular tradition for many to believe John the apostle to be the author of revelation, however the writer of revelation never claimed to be an apostle. The literary form in this book is called apocalyptic writing. This means thatRead MoreMartin Luther And The Birth Of Protestantism1505 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages16th century. The reason why I chose this book is because the reformation is one of my favorite subject. I studied it in high-school, I preached about it and every single time, I always learn something new that makes be proud and happy to be the Seventh-day Adventist Christian I am today. Martin Luther is my favorite reformer because he dared to stand against the errors and false teachings of the Catholic Church even when he was threatened to die. Also, I chose this book because I love learning aboutRead MoreAfter the Way Called Heresy Book Review1140 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshistory. Chapter 1 In chapter one we find the foundation of the whole book, in this chapter we discover the two main philosophical bases that have been in use through the history of mankind. Plato emphasis was (man should live by changeless ideals and align himself with himself. 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These scriptures explain how God created the world in six days and, on the seventh day, He rested from the work thatRead MoreThe Conquests Of Alexander The Great1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesregimes in Second Temple Palestine, clearly attests to this fact: 536-332 B.C.E. - The Persian Period 332-167 B.C.E. - The Hellenistic Period 167-141 B.C.E. - The Hasmonean Uprising 141- 63 B.C.E. - The Hasmonean State 63 B.C.E. - 70 C.E. - Roman Rule (in varying stages and forms) The Grecian or Hellenistic Period 331-320 BC As defined by purely political criteria, the Hellenistic period in Palestine may be subdivided as follows : a) 332-331 B.C.E., the conquests of Alexander and wars ofRead MoreAfrican Catholic Church And The Church Of South Africa1608 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCongregational Church in Southern Africa (UCCSA). Their arrival opened the missionary field to other churches namely the Dutch Reformed Church (1871), the Lutheran Church (1891), the Anglican Church (1900s), the Methodist Church (1940s), the Seventh Day Adventists (1922) the Roman Catholic Church (1928) and Pentecostal Churches (1930s). It should be noted that though Christian values have permeated every aspect of Tswana society, Batswana Christians continue to observe a great deal of African traditional religiousRead MoreNero as the Antichrist Essay1040 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNero as the Antichrist Nero was a mixture of megalomania, evil, and cruelty according to Roman historians as well as Jews and Christians. His sin of matricide and his claims of deity were major elements in his infamous reputation. Though modern Historians have tried to whitewash Nero and say that certain groups in Rome and other parts of the empire supported him, his name has become a synonym for tyrant and, for many, Antichrist. Nero was born in AD 37 on December 15 to Agrippina and GnaeusRead MoreEssay on A Review of Peter BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s Augustine of Hippo1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswith Ã¢â¬Å"Africa,Ã¢â¬ a chapter detailing the section of northern Africa:Ã its Greco-Roman literary and political history, painting a picture of the world Augustine came from.Ã The next chapter, titled Ã¢â¬Å"Monica,Ã¢â¬ describes AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s parents, particularly his mother, and their religious beliefs and socioeconomic status.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Education,Ã¢â¬ the third chapter, is about the future bishopÃ¢â¬â¢s early education, focusing on his introduction to his favorite school subject, Latin literature.Ã The next chapter in the logicalRead MoreEssay on The Lutheran Church and The Catholic Church804 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand was a combination of three branches of the Lutheran religion: the American Lutheran church, the Association of Evangelical Lutheran churches, and the Lutheran Church in America. In 2 012 the ELCA had 3,950,924 baptized members. Today, it is the seventh largest religious body and largest Lutheran denomination in the U.S. Luther, born in 1483, was a German monk and priest of the Catholic Church. While working in the Church, he saw many problems and became determined to fix them. At the time the CatholicRead MorePaganism In Beowulf1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe society of the seventh century, and these themes are still shown in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. As students of literature we see that these universal themes of good and evil are not only evolving but also causing mankind to feud with one another. Furthermore, in the poem Beowulf it tells of a time when the Geats and Danes encountered many conflicts because of the different beliefs of a Christian and pagan culture. It was mixed as Christianity had been introduced to Europe by the Roman Catholics and paganism
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Inequality at the Work Place. Answer: Introduction Each and every society is always characterized by specific stratifications. Depending on the nature of these divisions, the aspect of inequality tends to arise among the individuals. Within a societal set up, inequality may arise along specific boundaries for instance, age, gender, power, authority, ethnic orientation, religion, educational achievements and wealth just to mention but few. Business organizations present a societal unit comprising people from diverse backgrounds all brought together by the key goals and objectives of the organization. The human resource within organizations comprises different individuals which is the sole reason for the existence of inequality in organizations. In order to adequately manage inequality in organizations, it is important to highlight the various perspectives by writers and theories with regard to this concept. Despite the existence of various perspectives, this essay focuses on the symbolic interpretivist and postmodernist perspectives ( Arakawa and Greenberg, 2007). The discussion of the perspectives and the analysis of aspect of inequality in organizations shall be made while focusing on two articles namely Trapped by Metaphors for organizations: Thinking and seeing womens equality and inequality by Linzi Kemp and Deconstructing the privilege and power of employee engagement: Issues of inequality in management and human resource development by Brad, Joshua, Tonette and Raquel. The articles involve different approaches as demonstrated by the writers while highlighting the aspect of inequality at work place. From the analysis of these perspectives, the paper intends to explore some of the causes and impacts of inequality in organization. By comparing the two perspectives to inequality, the essay shall be summarized with recommendations on how managers can use this data on inequality to deal with organizational issues related to the concept in question (Trice and Beyer, 2009). Inequality at work place from the symbolic interpretivist point of view Reference article: Trapped by metaphors for organizations: Thinking and seeing womens equality and inequality by Linzi Kemp The symbolic interpretivist perspective is concerned with how individuals in a group use symbols and images and how these approaches affect the outcome of their relations and other collective processes within the group. From the interpretivist point of view, the aspect of social stratification in any society is inevitable hence it forms a basic function within organizations. This perspective highlight aspects such as symbolic predispositions, process as well as prior practices influence the nature of interactions between individuals within a group or organization. From this position, we can deduce that in any given group, individual tend to view each other based on their preformed images of them. For instance, variations in gender, ethnicity, religion and sexual orientation act as some of the basic symbols which determine the outcome of interactions between individuals at the place of work. (Bakker and Demerouti, 2007). It is also a fact worth noting that the above symbols are actual ly the elements which curve out the aspect of diversity at work place. Consequently, it can be highlighted that the different symbols used in groups constitute the diversity in the group and hence the existence of inequality. The arguments by Linz involve the use of various metaphors to outline the aspect of gender and women equality and inequality in organizations. The article which takes an interpretive approach highlights the various images of women as presented by the society and how these images impact the treatment of women in organizations. From the introductory portion above, we have deduced that various elements describe inequality in organizations. At the same time, different individuals tend to have varied approaches while highlighting the aspect of inequality. While others feel the aspects of gender, class, ethnic variations and religions are the leading reasons behind inequality, most post-modernist writers tend to believe that the desire for social stability, power, wealth and hence rise in status quo adequately explains the rise and existence of inequality in organizations (Bakker, Schaufeli, Leiter and Taris, 2008). For instance, by reviewing the thematic discussions in the chosen readings, we note that Linzi Kemp employs a more symbolic interpretive approach while exploring the aspect of inequality. This she achieves by narrowing the discussion to gender as one of the core elements which define inequality in organizations. The author notes the rather casual approach given to the feminine efforts in organizations as a result of prior and historical symbolic predispositions. (Claude and Michael, 2006). The basic idea here is that women are different from men in terms of a number of factors which may include rationality, work ethics, work output, commitment and quality delivery just to mention but few. These differences represent the symbols used to view and hence interpret their capabilities within the organizations. With reference to ancient research, women were never given many opportunities in organizations due to the prior belief that they were incapable of handling certain responsibilities. The prior belief acts as an ancient image of women which did and continues to adversely affect how women are viewed in organizations. As a result, most top positions in institutions and organizations would be dominated by men. This explains the rise of gender inequality in most organizations especially in the pas t centuries. However with the rise of modernism and postmodernism, the women have since been availed with almost equal opportunities especially in line with education. This implies that the women are well in a position to study and hence have the same academic qualifications just like the man (Chalofsky, 2007). They can therefore be employed in any organization and accorded top positions not necessary based on their gender but on academic qualifications. It is however a fact worth noting that this transition has been overlooked in certain spheres and as revealed in the reading, women still face opposition in certain areas where they lack equal chances with the men as a result of their gender. This amounts to conflicts in organizations due to the fact that inequality has been viewed as a tool for disunity and not necessarily an avenue for developing performance within the organization (Steven, 2010). The authors use of metaphors to present image of women in organizations from different perspectives indicates women inequality in the work place as an issue which is far from over. By basing the research on extensive review of literature, the article reveals views women inequality both from a theoretical perspective as well as from the point of view of postmodern writers. The discussions and findings however reveal a common aspect with regard to the treatment of women at the workplace (Timothy, 2007). The discussions also outline the fact that some of the unfair treatments towards the women are the leading causes of inequality and hence conflicts in organizations. Research indicates that the participation of women in the places of work has improved tremendously over the past years. However, theoretical stipulations point out that achieving equality especially for women in organizations has remained a hard objective to achieve due to the fact that gender remains a key organizational i ssue (Christian and Slaughter, 2011). With the continued review of the authors metaphoric assumptions, it can be deduced that the position given to women in organizations during the 19th and 20th centuries is quite different from the situation in the current modern world. The article indicates that women employment and them being accorded leadership positions was unheard of in the past (Collins and Callahan, 2012). However, the number of women entering the workforce and even getting leadership positions at board levels has improved significantly over the past years. This trend indicates that despite the existence of gender based issues in organizations, the corporate world and managers in particular has continued to device the right methodologies in a bid to ensure that inequality in terms of gender does not limit the womens opportunities especially in the work place. The changing trends serve to erase the ancient assumptions where organizations were only treated as a mans world and a no entry zone for the women. The cur rent organizational structures adequately factor in women hence giving them equal opportunities just like the men. The concepts summarized in the article indicate the conflicting views towards women and organizations which adequately outlines the conflict theory perspective to inequality as demonstrated by the writer. In order to enhance organizational cohesion and unity, it would be important to view women not based on the image of gender but as crucial objects within the human resource fraternity equally capable of achieving key organizational goals just like the men. Inequality in organizations from the post-modernist perspective Reference article: Deconstructing the Privilege and Power of Employee Engagement: Issues of Inequality for Management and Human Resource Development by Brad, Joshua, Tonette and Raquel According to Bakker and Demerouti (2008), the postmodernist perspective to inequality in organizations stipulates that a society is often divided along social, political and material boundaries. This perspective highlights these components as the main reasons behind inequality especially in groups and organizations. This perspective treats the interaction between individuals within any given social set as an avenue for competition for power, wealth, authority and the distributed resources. This perspective emphasizes on the role of the postmodern innovations on impacting inequality at work place. The dynamic society has led to a lot of transitions in communication, education systems; knowledge based management as well as differences in management approaches. This has led to rise in competition since each individual thrives to keep their grip on the power and privileges accorded to them within the organizations. When such approaches are not carefully controlled, the quest for power an d authority overshadows the need to observe organizational objectives and hence inequality at the work place. Similar to the prepositions deduced from the postmodernist perspectives, the article equally constructs inequality at the workplace along the boundaries of power, authority, wealth and class. Review of relevant literature equally lists these elements as some of the leading causes of inequality in organizations. It is however interesting to note that the postmodernists justify inequality by mentioning that the desire to remain in high places of power and authority leads to motivation of workers to offer more and exploit their capabilities (Jeff and Michael, 2009). However the authors assumptions are carefully outlined and the discussions end with amicable recommendations. The conclusions by the authors laced with the postmodernist approaches do not make inequality an obstacle to organizational growth but rather views it as a constructive phenomenon in organizations. The article focuses on power and privilege as some of the core determinants of inequality at the place of work. These are the very elements outlined by postmodernists as the reasons behind the existence of inequality at work place. From the authors arguments, we can deduce that privileges and power have a direct effect on value, experience and benefits of employee engagement. At the same time, the aspects of power and privilege have a special way of defining the context of a workplace. For instance when the persons in authority execute their responsibilities professionally and constructively, the work environment is likely to remain conducive and healthy for better performance and improvement (Richard and Kate, 2009). On the other hand, if an organization comprises leaders in high places who use their powers and authority to press unnecessary policies on the lower level workers then the workplace environment is likely to be characterized by grumbling, disunity, low engagement and poo r motivation. The authors in this article move further to outline the need for a more constructive approach which ensures positive impacts of inequality (Purcell, 2014). Despite the fact that inequality at the work place is inevitable, the reading suggest that it is within the sole power of the managers to ensure the existence of controlled systems which would not only see an improvement in the value of employee engagement but also ensure that this form of engagement improves both individual and organizational performance. This could be achieved by ensured adequate control of the powers and privileges given to the workers. The approach creates a unique system in which no worker feels discriminated despite the existence of different levels of power and privileges (Rich, Lepine and Crawford, 2010). Conclusion While symbolic interpretivist perspective on inequality views the concept as a cause of conflicts in organizations, the postmodernist approach offers a more liberal image where inequality is a depicted as a tool which could possibly be used by managers to enhance worker engagement (Richman, 2006). The two perspectives with reference to the two readings therefore reveal the varied sides of inequality in organizations. Due to the fact that the work place is characterized by a lot of diversity, the existence of inequality is almost inevitable. It is also a fact worth noting that when this issue is not adequately managed, it may lead to negative impacts on employee engagement and hence a decline on the general organizational performance. It would therefore be crucial for managers to come up with effective methodologies of managing inequality at the workplace. Such approaches may involve giving equal opportunities to both the men and women within the workforce without necessarily using th e image of gender to determine who gets the opportunities. The managers can also control the powers and privileges given to various workers within the organization as this would ensure that they use their privileges constructively and ultimately in a manner that benefits the organization. Training and communication to employees on the impacts of inequality would also help the managers to instill a positive perspective in the workers. With good management, inequality at the workplace can be easily changed from the challenge that it has been into an effective tool for organizational development. References Arakawa, D. and Greenberg, M. (2007) Optimistic managers and their influence on productivity and employee engagement in a technology organization: Implications for coaching psychologists.Coaching Psychology Review, 2, pp. 78-89. Bakker, A. and Demerouti, E. (2007) The jobs-demands resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, pp. 309-328. Bakker, A. and Demerouti, E. (2008) Towards a model of work engagement. Career Development International, 13, pp. 209-223. Bakker, A., Schaufeli, W., Leiter, M., and Taris, T. (2008) Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupational health psychology. Work Stress, 22, pp. 187-200. Claude S. and Michael, H. (2006) Century of Difference: How America Changed in the Last One Hundred Years. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Chalofsky, N. (2007) An emerging construct for meaningful work. Human Resource Development International, 6, pp. 69-83. Christian, M. and Slaughter, J. (2011) Work engagement: A quantitative Review and test of its relations with task and contextual performance. Personnel Psychology,64, pp. 89-136. Collins, J. and Callahan, L. (2012) Risky business: Gay identity disclosure in a masculinized Industry. Human Resource Development International, 15, pp. 455-470 Jeff, M and Michael, S. (2009) Inequality and Society: Social Science Perspectives on Social Stratification. New York: W.W. Norton. Richard, W and Kate, P. (2009) The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger. London: Bloomsbury Press. Purcell, J. (2014) Disengaging from engagement. Human Resource Management Journal, 24,241-254. Rich, B., Lepine, J. and Crawford, E. (2010) Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. The Academy of Management Journal, 53, pp. 617-635. Richman, A. (2006) Everyone wants an engaged workforce how can you create it? Workspan, 49, pp. 36-39. Steven, H. (2010) Europes Promise: Why the European Way is the Best Hope in an Insecure Age. California: University of California Press. Timothy, M. (2007) Poor Kids in a Rich Country: Americas Children in Comparative Perspective. London: Russell Sage Foundation. Trice, H. and Beyer, J. M. (2009) The culture of work organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.